GI: Anatomy of the peritoneal cavity Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in GI: Anatomy of the peritoneal cavity Deck (11):

What is the structure of the peritoneum?
What is the embryological derivative?

Two continuous layers:
Parietal - derived from somatic mesoderm
Visceral - derived from splanchnic mesoderm


What are the intraperitoneal organs?

Completely covered by visceral peritoneum: stomach, ileum, jejunum, transverse colon, appendix, sigmoid colon, the first five centimeters of the duodenum, and the upper third part of the rectum, spleen, the liver, and the tail of the pancreas


What are the retroperitoneal organs?

Only covered by peritoneum on their anterior surface:
S = suprarenal glands
A = aorta and IVC
D = duodenum (except first 5cm)
P = head of pancreas
U = ureters
C = colon (asc and desc)
K = kidneys
E = esophagus
R = rectum (lower 2/3rds)


What is the mesentery?

A double layer of visceral peritoneum that connects intraperitoneal organs to posterior abdo wall


What is the omentum?

A double layer of peritoneum extending from stomach and proximal duodenum to other abdo organs.
Greater omentum: 4 layers of peritoneum thay extends from greater curvature of stomach and proximal duodenum that folds back up to anterior transverse colon
Lesser omentum: Smaller and comes from the lesser curve of the stomach and proximal duodenum to the liver.


Describe the structure of the greater sac

It is divided into 2 compartments by the mesentery of the transverse colon (transverse mesocolon)
Supracolic compartment: contains stomach, liver and spleen
Infracolic compartment: contains small intestine, asc and desc colon


What are the paracolic gutters?

Connect the supracolic and infracolic compartments of the greater sac
They lie inbetween the posterolateral abdominal wall and lateral asc and desc colon


Describe the structure of the lesser sac (also called omental bursa)

Lies posterior to the stomach and lesser omentum - allows stomach to move freely
Connected to greater sac via the epiploic foramen


What is the rectovesical pouch?

-Only present in males
-Its a double folding of peritoneum between the rectum and the bladder
-Peritoneal cavity completely closed in males


What is the rectouterine and vesicouterine pouch?

-Only present in females
-rectouterine pouch is a double folded extension of peritoneum between the rectum and posterior wall of uterus
-vesicouterine pouch is a double fold of peritoneum between anterior uterus and bladder
-peritoneal cavity not completely closed in females , the uterine tubes pass through


Where are the subphrenic spaces?

Recesses in the greater sac between the anterosuperior diaphragmatic surface of liver and the diaphragm, they are separated into right and left by the falciform ligament of the liver.
Subphrenic abscesses can occur as a result of peritonitis, more common on the right due to appendicitis and ruptured duodenal ulcers.

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