Flashcards in GI: Microbiology of the GI tract Deck (14):
Where are anaerobic zones in the GI tract?
Parts of the mouth - deep in the taste buds, biofilm between teeth
What are some of the beneficial functions of the gut flora?
- synthesise vitamins eg Vit K and B12
- prevent colonisation of pathogens
- stimulate development of MALT (caecum and peyers patches)
- stimulate production of natural antibodies
What MOs are present in the mouth?
Lots of anaerobes - 700 species
Eg streptococci, staphylococci, candida, lactobacilus, enterococcus
Therefore human bites can cause very bad infections
If the individual in malnourished, dehydrated or immunocompromised they can get tissue destruction
What are some risk factors for oral thrush?
Not normally a problem but candida in mouth can overgrow:
Diabetics, antibiotics, newborns, immune deficiency
What is Ludwig's angina?
An infected palatine tonsil with strep - drains into neck lymph nodes and into tissues causes laryngeal oedema - need to act v quickly because may stop breathing.
What MO causes parotiditis?
Always staph aureus
What are some of the flora in the nose?
Staphylococcus and streptococcus
What are some flora in the throat?
Everyone has strep viridans (classic cause of sore throat). staphylococci, neisseria meningitidis
Some have H influenzae, candida albicans
What can cause bacteraemia and what is a potential complication of this?
Teeth brushing, dental procedures and general anaesthesia can all cause bacteraemia with strep viridans
In healthy people this is only transient but the bacteria can stick to prosthesis and cause infection
What are the common bacterial and viral causes of tonsillitis?
70% of cases are viral - adenovirus, rhinovirus, epsetin-barr
30% are bacterial - mainly strep pyogenes
What are some common colonic bacteria?
More than 100 species
95% are anaerobes eg clostridial species which can form spores, and bacteroides eg bacteroids fragilis
Also E coli and enterococcus faecalis
What are some common perineal organsisms?
E coli, lactobacillus, enterococcus faecalis
Why is lactobacillus beneficial to the vagina?
Lactobacillus converts gylcogen to lactic acid to create an acidic environment which prevents other bacteria and candida albicans from growing
If antibiotics are used this can kill lactobacillus which can lead to vaginal thrush