Respiratory: Anatomy Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Respiratory: Anatomy Deck (10):

What are the components of the upper and lower respiratory tracts?

Upper: nasal cavity, mouth, pharynx
Lower: epiglottis, larynx, trachea, all of lungs, intercostal muscles and diaphragm.


What is the difference between the conducting and respiratory zone?

The conducting zone (nasal cavity to bronchioles) transports air in and out of the lungs.
The respiratory zone (respiratory bronchioles to alveoli) is where the gaseous exchange takes place.


What is the contents of the middle mediastinum?

Organs: Heart, pericardium, trachea and its bifurcation.
Vessels: asc aorta, pulmonary trunk, SVC
Nerves: left and right phrenic nerves, cardiac plexus


What is the resting expiratory level?

The relaxed position of lungs-thorax unit - when air has stopped going out of the lungs and has not yet gone into the lungs.
Any movement away from the REL requires muscles


Which bronchus is a foreign object more likely to get lodged in?

The right bronchus is more vertical so foreign objects more likely to lodge due to gravity.


How is cartilage arranged in the respiratory tract?

The trachea has a C shaped hyaline ring
The primary bronchi have a full cartilage ring
The terminal bronchi have cartilage arranged in irregular plates and islands
Bronchioles have no cartilage


Which cell type produces surfactant?

Clara cells


What are the surface markings of the pleura?

Apex is 2cm above medial 1/3 of clavicle
Reaches midline at sternal angle (2nd rib) and extends down midline to 4th rib
Left pleura then forms a notch and extends down to 6th rib and right extends down to 6th with no notch
Then crosses the mid-clavicular line at level of 8th rib
Cross mid-axillary line at level of 10th rib
Crosses 12th rib near vertebral column

(remember even numbers)


What are the surface markings of the lung?

Same as the pleura except 2 ribs higher
Crosses mid-clavicular line at level of 6th rib
Crosses mid-axillary line at level of 8th rib
Crosses 10th rib near vertebral column

The notch in the left lung is a lot bigger than the notch in the pleura


What are the surface markings of the lung fissures?

Oblique fissure common to both lungs:
Extends from the spine of T3 (roughly level with spine of scapula) along the medial border of scapula when arm is abducted

Transverse fissure of right lung:
Horizontal line from the sternum along the 4th rib

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