Flashcards in Respiratory: Anatomy of the thorax Deck (14):
How many ribs are there?
7 true ribs
3 false ribs (not connecting directly to sternum)
2 floating ribs (can be used for surgical reconstruction)
What is the typical structure of a rib?
Head: wedge shaped and has 2 articular facets - one articulates with corresponding vertebrae and one articulates with the vertebrae above
Neck: where the neck meets the body there is a roughened tubercle which articulates with the transverse process of the vertebrae
Body: internal surface of shaft has a groove for the neurovascular bundle
What are the posterior joints of the ribs?
Costotransverse joint: articulation between the tubercle of the rib and the transverse costal facet of corresponding vertebrae
Costovertebral joint: articulation between the head of the rib, superior costal facet of corresponding vertebrae and inferior costal facet of vertebrae above
What are the anterior joints of the ribs?
Ribs 1-7 attach to sternum
Ribs 8-10 attach to the superior costal cartilages
Ribs 11-12 do not attach anteriorly
How does the chest wall move during breathing?
Ribs move like a bucket handle - increases lateral diameter
Sternum moves like a pump handle - increases anterior posterior diameter
What is the anatomical level of the diaphragm?
On the right - 4th IC space
On the left - 5th IC space
Moves ~1.5 spaces during breathing
What are the 3 layers of the intercostal muscles?
External oblique - elevates the ribs
Internal oblique - pulls ribs down
Innermost - assists the internal oblique
What is the neurological supply to the intercostal muscles?
Intercostal nerves T1-T11
What are the structures that pass through the diaphragm and at what levels?
IVC - 8 letters so passes through at T8
Oesophagus - 10 letters so T10
Aortic hiatus - 12 letters to T12
Where is the neurovascular bundle located in the intercostal space and therefore where would you insert a chest drain?
The neurovascular bundle is located at the top of the IC space, with some collateral branches at the bottom.
2nd IC space at the bottom of the IC space so only the minor branches are hit
What is the azygous venous system and what is its purpose?
The azygous vein is an unpaired vein on the right side - there is a hemiazygous vein on the left side but this is a tributary.
It collects blood from the IC spaces, shift blood over to the right and collects at the level of the heart.
What are the lobes of the lungs?
Right lung has 3 lobes separated by transverse and oblique fissures.
Left lung has 2 lobes separated by oblique fissure.
What are the contents of the lung hilium?
pulmonary Artery Anterior (AA)
Pulmonary veins are anterior inferior
The airways are posterior - bronchi.