Flashcards in HPHD Child Development and Communication Deck (13):
What is the attachment theory?
States that attachment is a biologically based system that functions to maintain proximity to the infants care giver
Infants are predisposed to seek contact and proximity
Why is attachment important for infants?
The infant forms their first mental model of relationships based on interactions with their primary care giver therefore secure attachment is important to show them they are worth of care and others will be there in times of need.
If no secure attachments are made by 4yo it is difficult for them to form secure relationships - more prone to mental and personality disorders later in life
What are the behavioural stages of a child being separated from their care givers whilst hospitalised?
1. Protest - child is distressed, looking for mother and may cling to substitute
2. Despair - the child become withdrawn and helpless, may barely cry
3. Detachment - more interested in surroundings and may become sociable but when carer returns they are remote and apathetic
Stages 2 and 3 often mistaken for recovery but are actually just masking damage
What are the effects of separation on hospitalised children?
May show behavioural changes eg bed wetting, agression
May hhave physical impacts such as depression, worsened pain
Most common in 3months - 3years old because they are unable to understand they are not being abandoned and cant imagine care giver in their mind
How does practice in hospital care aim reduce separation anxiety in children?
There is open parent access - they can even stay in the hospital with the child
They can bring in attachment objects like teddys
The environment is bright and colourful rather than clinical
There are specialist play therapists and nurses
There is continuity of staff so long term inpatients can develop relationships
List Piaget's 4 stages of childhood cognitive development
7-12yrs Concrete operational
12yrs + Formal operational
Children are not 'mini adults' their thinking is structured in different ways
Describe the sensorimotor stage (0-2yrs) of childhood cognitive development
Babies experience the world through senses and think through doing. They can understand any abstract concepts.
Do not understand permanence until around 8 months eg that objects still exist even if they are out of sight
Describe the preoperational stage (2-7yrs) of childhood cognitive development
A time of language development and symbolic thought.
They display egocentricism - difficulty in seeingthings from others points of view, think that everyone experiences the world the way they do
Lack concept of conservation - dont understand things have the same property if they look different
Describe the concrete operational stage (7-12yrs) of childhood cognitive development
Thing logically and able to see things from others perspectives
They are able to classify by multiple features but cannot handle metaphors - take things as concrete
Describe the formal operational stage (12yrs+) of childhood cognitive development
Can handle abstract logic and carry out hypothetic-deductive reasoning
What is Vygotsky's theory of cognitive development?
Cognitive development requires social interaction and children learn through shared problem solving.
With able instruction child can achieve some increase in understanding to what they can achieve alone
What are some good practices when communicating with children?
- be calm to show youre in control
- talk to parents first to give child chance to relax
- OWL: observe, wait, listen, can provide valuable information
- imitate with a doll what you want the child to do
- give them choice eg where they want to be examined
- distract them while youre examining them
- give stickers