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Flashcards in HPHD Child Development and Communication Deck (13):

What is the attachment theory?

States that attachment is a biologically based system that functions to maintain proximity to the infants care giver
Infants are predisposed to seek contact and proximity


Why is attachment important for infants?

The infant forms their first mental model of relationships based on interactions with their primary care giver therefore secure attachment is important to show them they are worth of care and others will be there in times of need.
If no secure attachments are made by 4yo it is difficult for them to form secure relationships - more prone to mental and personality disorders later in life


What are the behavioural stages of a child being separated from their care givers whilst hospitalised?

1. Protest - child is distressed, looking for mother and may cling to substitute
2. Despair - the child become withdrawn and helpless, may barely cry
3. Detachment - more interested in surroundings and may become sociable but when carer returns they are remote and apathetic

Stages 2 and 3 often mistaken for recovery but are actually just masking damage


What are the effects of separation on hospitalised children?

May show behavioural changes eg bed wetting, agression
May hhave physical impacts such as depression, worsened pain

Most common in 3months - 3years old because they are unable to understand they are not being abandoned and cant imagine care giver in their mind


How does practice in hospital care aim reduce separation anxiety in children?

There is open parent access - they can even stay in the hospital with the child
They can bring in attachment objects like teddys
The environment is bright and colourful rather than clinical
There are specialist play therapists and nurses
There is continuity of staff so long term inpatients can develop relationships


List Piaget's 4 stages of childhood cognitive development

0-2yrs Sensorimotor
2-7yrs Preoperational
7-12yrs Concrete operational
12yrs + Formal operational

Children are not 'mini adults' their thinking is structured in different ways


Describe the sensorimotor stage (0-2yrs) of childhood cognitive development

Babies experience the world through senses and think through doing. They can understand any abstract concepts.
Do not understand permanence until around 8 months eg that objects still exist even if they are out of sight


Describe the preoperational stage (2-7yrs) of childhood cognitive development

A time of language development and symbolic thought.
They display egocentricism - difficulty in seeingthings from others points of view, think that everyone experiences the world the way they do
Lack concept of conservation - dont understand things have the same property if they look different


Describe the concrete operational stage (7-12yrs) of childhood cognitive development

Thing logically and able to see things from others perspectives
They are able to classify by multiple features but cannot handle metaphors - take things as concrete


Describe the formal operational stage (12yrs+) of childhood cognitive development

Can handle abstract logic and carry out hypothetic-deductive reasoning


What is Vygotsky's theory of cognitive development?

Cognitive development requires social interaction and children learn through shared problem solving.
With able instruction child can achieve some increase in understanding to what they can achieve alone


What are some good practices when communicating with children?

- be calm to show youre in control
- talk to parents first to give child chance to relax
- OWL: observe, wait, listen, can provide valuable information
- imitate with a doll what you want the child to do
- give them choice eg where they want to be examined
- distract them while youre examining them
- give stickers


What must you avoid doing when communicating with children?

- promise things you cant deliver
- expect the same things from different ages
- express frustration

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