Infection: Antimicrobials Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Infection: Antimicrobials Deck (14):
1

How are antibacterials classified?

Bactericidal (kill bacteria) or bacteriostatic (inhibit growth)
Broad or narrow spectrum
Target site
Chemical structure

2

What are the 4 different mechanisms of action of antibacterials? Give an example for each

Most important
Inhibit cell wall synthesis - beta lactams and glycopeptides (penicillin and vancomycin)
Inhibit protein synthesis - tetracyclines
Inhibit nucleic acid synthesis - quinolones, rifampicin
Inhibit cell membrane function
Least important

3

What bacteria is vancomycin effective against?

gram +ves
has a narrow therapeutic window so needs close monitoring

4

What are the mechanisms of resistance of antimicrobials?

- Drug inactivating enzymes that destroy the antibiotic before it can work eg beta lactamases destroy beta lactams
- Altered target eg the target enzyme has a lower affinity for the antibacterial
- Altered uptake, either decreased permeability or increased efflux

5

What bacteria are penicillins effective against?

Mainly active against streptococci and gram negatives

6

Name some penicillins are what they are effective against

Penicillin - steptococci
Amoxicillin - gram +ves with some activity against g -ves
Flucloxicillin - streptococci and staphylococci
Co-amoxiclav - mixture of amoxicillin and some g-ve

7

What bacteria is cetriaxone effective against?

Broad spectrum
Has good activity in cerebral spinal fluid so good for use in meningitis

8

What condition is meropenem used for?

Used for life threatening sepsis with an unknown cause - very broad spectrum

9

What bacteria is doxycycline effective against?

Broad spectrum but commonly used for g+ve in penicillin allergy
Used for atypical pneumonia

10

What bacteria is gentamycin effective against?

Profound activity against g-ves (so reserved for severe gram negative sepsis)
can be potentially nephrotoxic

11

What is erythromycin used for?

Alternative to penicillin in mild g+ve infection
Active against atypical respiratory pathogens

12

What is ciprofloxacin effective against?

Very active against g-ves and atypical pathogens
High risk of C difficile

13

What is trimehtoprim used to treat?

UTIs

14

What is antimicrobial stewardship?

A program that promotes the appropriate use of antimicrobials, improves patient outcomes, reduces microbial resistance, and decreases the spread of infections caused by multidrug-resistant organisms.

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