GIT Flashcards Preview

Pedia > GIT > Flashcards

Flashcards in GIT Deck (55):
1

Cholelithiasis in children is usually due to

Hemolytic dyscrasia

2

Gold standard for diagnosis of biliary atresia

Direct cholangiography

3

Most common form of biliary atresia

Obliteration of the entire extra hepatic biliary tree at or above the porta hepatis

4

Seen in biliary atresia upon ultrasound where there is a cone shaped fibrotic mass cranial to the bifurcation of the portal vein

Triangular cord sign

5

Biliary atresia vs neonatal hepatitis

Persistent acholic stool

Biliary atresia

6

Most common cause of viral gastroenteritis in infants

Rotavirus

7

Duration of acute diarrhea must not be more than how many days?

14

8

Child presents with watery diarrhea and vomiting:

Day care center
Infants and toddlers

Rotavirus
ETEC

9

Child presents with watery diarrhea and vomiting:

Profuse diarrhea and vomiting
Flecks of mucous on voluminous diarrhea

Cholera

10

Child presents with watery diarrhea and vomiting:

Profuse diarrhea after eating raw oysters or undercooked shellfish

Vibrio parahemolyticus

11

Child presents with watery diarrhea and vomiting:

Person to person
Winter

Norwalk

12

Child presents with watery diarrhea and vomiting:

Greasy stool after camping

Giardia

13

Child presents with watery diarrhea and vomiting:

After history if travel

ETEC

14

In cholera, binding of the enterotoxin B to the ganglioside receptor activates what 2nd messenger?

Adenylate cyclase

15

Increased levels of cAMP in cholera blocks reabsorption of?

NaCl reabsorption

16

Drug treatment for cholera

Tetracycline or Doxycycline

17

Invasion of intestinal epithelium is the basis for the bleeding diarrhea in what infection?

Shigella

18

Enteric fever is caused by this organism

Salmonella typhi

19

Empiric treatment for typhoid fever

Ceftriaxone

20

Bloody diarrhea, pus and WBC in stools:

Trophozoite with ingested RBC

Amoebiasis

21

Bloody diarrhea, pus and WBC in stools:

Abdominal cramps, systemic toxicity after antibiotic used

Clostridium difficile

22

Usual antibiotics implicated in clostridium difficile infection

Clinda
Ampi
2nd gen Ceph

23

Treatment for clostridium difficile

Metro
Vanco

24

Bloody diarrhea, pus and WBC in stools:

Abdominal cramps, tenesmus

Shigella

25

Bloody diarrhea, pus and WBC in stools:

High fever, headache, drowsiness, confusion, meningismus, seizures, abdominal distention

Salmonella

26

Bloody diarrhea, pus and WBC in stools:

Diarrhea after eating hamburger

EHEC

27

This serotype of Shigella produces Shiga toxin that is implicated in HUS

Shigella dysenteriae

28

Clue in the Symptoms that is most likely due to shigella

Painful defecation

29

Differentials for shigella

SECCSY

Salmonella
EIEC
Entamoeba histolytica
Campylobacter
Clostridium difficile
Yersinia enterolitica

30

Empiric treatment for shigella

Cipro

31

Most common cause of intestinal obstruction between 3 months and 6 years old

Intussuception

32

Currant jelly stool
Sausage shaped mass
Coiled spring sign in barium enema
Donut or target sign in UTZ

Intussuception

33

Noted to have vomiting every after feeding

Clear breath sounds, firm movable mass on abdomen

Pyloric stenosis

34

Vomit greenish material after every feeding on 1st day of life

Nondistended abdomen with hyperactive bowel sounds

Duodenal atresia

35

Double bubble sign on xray

Duodenal atresia

36

Most common segment affected in Hirschprung

Rectosigmoid

37

Most common cause of intestinal obstruction in neonates

Hirschprung

38

Gold standard for diagnosis of Hirschprung

Rectal suction biopsy

39

Definitive repair for Hirschprung occurs when the infant is

6-12 months

40

Abdominal pain, vomiting

Cant pass NGT

Omega sign/coffee bean sign

Volvulus

41

Abdominal pain, vomiting

Postprandial vomiting, nonbilious, abdominal distention, Down's

Olive shaped mass
Barium- shoulder sign, double tract sign

Pyloric stenosis

42

Painless rectal bleeding
Intermittent pain
Normal history or recurrent obstruction

Scintigraphy scan to detect gastric tissue

Meckel's diverticulum

43

Where is Meckel's usually found?

2ft from the ileocecal valve

44

How many criteria must be met to diagnose functional constipation?

2

45

In foreign body ingestion, symptoms of cervical swelling, erythema and subcutaneous crepitations may indicate

Perforation of oropharynx or proximal esophagus

46

What test must be done if the foreign object cannot be visualized and the child is symptomatic?

Endoscopy

47

Alkali agents cause this type of necrosis

Liquefactive

48

Acidic agents can cause this type of necrosis

Coagulative

49

Common causes of acute pancreatitis in children

Blunt abdominal injury
Viral illness

50

Which pancreatic enzyme is more specific for acute inflammatory pancreatitis?

Lipase

51

Sign in acute pancreatitis that refers to subcutaneous hemorrhage

Cullen sign

52

Sign in acute pancreatitis that refers to retroperitoneal hemorrhage

Grey Turner sign

53

Management for acute pancreatitis

NPO
TPN
Antibiotics
Analgesic

54

First clinical evidence of HBV infection is the elevation of

ALT levels 6-7 weeks after exposure

55

Most valuable single serologic marker of acute HBV infection

Anti- HBc