Gluconeogenesis/Glycolysis German 9/18/16 Flashcards Preview

Biochem Human Form and Function > Gluconeogenesis/Glycolysis German 9/18/16 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Gluconeogenesis/Glycolysis German 9/18/16 Deck (82):
1

What is the first step of Glycolysis?

Go from Glucose to Glucose 6-phosphate

2

In the first step of glycolysis you go from glucose to what molecule?

Glucose 6-phosphate

3

In glycolysis what enzyme is responsible for getting from glucose to glucose 6-phosphate?

Hexokinase

4

What is the second step of glycolysis?

Go from Glucose 6-phosphate to Fructose 6-phosphate

5

In the second step of glycolysis you go from glucose 6-phosphate to what molecule?

Fructose 6-phosphate

6

What enzyme in glycolysis is responsible for going from glucose 6-phosphate to fructose 6-phosphate?

Phosphohexose Isomerase

7

What is the third step of glycolysis?

Go from Fructose 6-phosphate to Fructose 1,6-Bisphosphate

8

In the third step of glycolysis you go from Fructose 6-phosphate to what molecule?

Fructose 1,6-Bisphosphate

9

What enzyme in glycolysis is responsible for going from fructose 6-phosphate to fructose 1,6-bisphosphate?

Phosphofructokinase-1

10

What is the fourth step in glycolysis?

Go from Fructose 1,6-Bisphosphate to Dihydroxyacetone phosphate

11

In the fourth step of glycolysis you go from Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate to what molecule?

Dihydroxyacetone phosphate

12

What enzyme is responsible for going from fructose 1,6-bisphosphate to dihydroxyacetone?

Aldolase

13

What happens during the fifth step of glycolysis?

Go from Dihydroxyacetone to two molecules of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate

14

In the fifth step of glycolysis you go from dihydroxyacetone to what molecule?

Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate

15

What enzyme is responsible for going from Dihydroxyacetone to Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate?

Triose phosphate isomerase

16

What happens during the sixth step of glycolysis?

Go from glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate to 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate

17

In the sixth step of glycolysis you go from glyceraldehyde 3 -phosphate to what molecule?

1,3-bisphosphoglycerate

18

What enzyme is responsible for going from glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate to 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate?

Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase

19

What happens during the seventh step of glycolysis?

Go from 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate to 3-phosphoglycerate

20

In the seventh step of glycolysis you go from 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate to what molecule?

3-phosphoglycerate

21

What enzyme is responsible for going from 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate to 3-phosphoglycerate?

Phosphoglycerate Kinase

22

What is the eighth step of glycolysis?

Go from 3-phosphoglycerate to 2-phosphoglycerate

23

In the eighth step of glycolysis you go from 3-phosphoglycerate to what molecule?

2-phosphoglycerate

24

What enzyme is responsible for going from 3-phosphoglycerate to 2-phosphoglycerate?

Phosphoglycerate mutase

25

In the ninth step of glycolysis what happens?

Go from 2-Phosphoglycerate to Phosphoenol-pyruvate

26

In the ninth step of glycolysis you go from 2-Phosphoglycerate to what molecule?

Phosphoenolpyruvate

27

What enzyme is responsible for going from 2-phosphoglycerate to phosphoenolpyruvate?

Enolase

28

In the tenth step of glycolysis what occurs?

Go from phosphoenolpyruvate to pyruvate

29

In the tenth step of glycolysis you go from phosphoenolpyruvate to what molecule?

Pyruvate

30

What is the enzyme responsible for going from phosphoenolpyruvate to pyruvate?

Pyruvate Kinase

31

How many steps and intermediaries are in glycolysis?

10 steps
11 intermediaries

32

How many steps and intermediaries are in gluconeogenesis?

11 steps
12 intermediaries

33

What is glycolysis?

Go from glucose to pyruvate

34

What is the first step of gluconeogenesis?

Go from Pyruvate to Oxaloacetate

35

What enzyme is responsible for going from pyruvate to oxaloacetate?

Pyruvate carboxylase

36

What is the second step of gluconeogenesis?

Go from oxaloacetate to phosphoenolpyruvate

37

What enzyme is responsible for going from oxaloacetate to phosphoenolpyruvate?

PEP carboykinase

38

What is the third step of gluconeogenesis?

Go from phosphoenolpyruvate to 2-phosphoglycerate

39

What is the enzyme responsible for going from phosphoenolpyruvate to 2-phosphoglycerate?

Enolase

40

What is the fourth step of gluconeogenesis?

Go from 2-phosphoglycerate to 3-phosphoglycerate

41

What is the enzyme responsible for going from 2-phosphoglycerate to 3-phosphoglycerate?

Phophoglycerate mutase

42

What is the fifth step of gluconeogeneis?

Go from 3-phosphoglycerate to 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate

43

What enzyme is responsible for going from 3-phosphoglycerate to 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate?

Phosphoglycerate kinase

44

What is the sixth step of gluconeogenesis?

Go from 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate to glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate

45

What enzyme is responsible for going from 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate to glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate?

glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase

46

What is the seventh step of gluconeogenesis?

Go from glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate to Dihydroxyacetone phosphate

47

What enzyme is responsible for going from glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate to dihydroxyacetone phosphate?

Triose phosphate isomerase

48

What is the eighth step of gluconeogenesis?

Go from Dihydroxyacetone phosphate to Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate

49

What enzyme is responsible for going from dihydroxyacetone to Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate?

Aldolase

50

What is the ninth step of gluconeogenesis?

Go from Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate to fructose 6-phosphate

51

What enzyme is responsible for going from fructose 1,6-bisphosphate to fructose 6-phosphate?

Fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase-1

52

What is the tenth step of gluconeogenesis?

Go from Fructose 6-phosphate to glucose 6-phosphate

53

What enzyme is responsible for going from fructose 6-phosphate to glucose 6-phosphate?

Phosphohexose isomerase

54

What is the eleventh step of gluconeogenesis?

Go from glucose 6-phosphate to glucose

55

What enzyme is responsible for going from glucose 6-phosphate to glucose?

Glucose 6-phosphatase

56

How many pyruvate do you make per glucose molecule?

Two

57

What are the two regulated enzymes in determining glycolysis from gluconeogenesis?

-Phosphofructokinase 1
-Fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase 1

58

What up regulates the activity of PFK-1?

ADP
AMP

59

What down regulates the activity of PFK-1?

ATP
Citrate

60

What up regulates the pyruvate carboxylase enzyme that converts Pyruvate to Oxaloacetate?

Excess of Acetyl-CoA

61

What metabolic pathway does an energy depletion lead to?

Glycolysis

62

What metabolic pathway does an energy excess lead to?

Gluconeogenesis

63

What does AMP Kinase (AMPK) detect?

Intracellular levels of AMP

64

What intracellular content regulates metabolic function?

ATP/AMP content

65

T/F If lots of ATP is consumed the relative change in the amount of AMP if way higher than the relative change in the amount of ATP

True

66

If we are in a feeding state what hormone is released?

Insulin

67

If we are in a fasting state what hormone is released?

Glucagon

68

During the feeding state what does the pancreas do?

Release insulin

69

During the fasting state what does the pancreas do?

Release glucagon

70

During the feeding state what does the liver do?

Glycogen and Fatty acid production

71

During the fasting state what does the liver do?

Gluconeogenesis
Glycogenolysis
Ketone and glucose release

72

During the feeding state what does the adipose do?

Lipid storage
-Glycolysis
-Lipid production

73

During the fasting state what does the adipose do?

Fatty acid and glycerol release

74

During the feeding state what does the muscle do?

Glycolysis and glycogen formation

75

During the fasting state what does muscle do?

Ketone metabolism
Reduced glycolysis

76

What are the ultimate fates of glucose?

-Glycogen
-Pyruvate
-Precursor for synthesis (FA, AA, Nucleic Acids)

77

What hormone down regulates glycogen breakdown?

Insulin

78

What hormone up regulates glycogen synthesis?

Insulin

79

What hormone up regulates glycolysis?

Insulin

80

What hormone up regulates glycogen breakdown?

Glucagon

81

What hormone down regulates glycogen synthesis?

Glucagon

82

What hormone down regulates glycolysis?

Glucagon