Glucose Control and Diabetes (week 4) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Glucose Control and Diabetes (week 4) Deck (55):
1

mellitus

honey

2

insipidus

invisible; nothing to it

3

where are islets of langerhans found

pancreas

4

fxn of islets of langerhans

regulate metabolism of fat, carbohydrate, and protein by release of hormones

5

what kind of organ is the pancreas

exocrine and endocrine

6

islets of langerhans innervated by

autonomics

7

islets of langerhans composed of

alpha cells
beta cells
delta cells
F cells

8

islets of langerhans alpha cells location

located at periphery of islets

9

islets of langerhans alpha cells secrete

glucagon

10

catecholamines and corticosteroids (increase/decrease) glucagon output

increase

11

what does glucagon do

promotes release of glucose

12

secretion of glucagon controlled by

blood glucose levels
insulin levels
autonomic input

13

sypathetic tone (increses/decreases) glucagon output

increases

14

parasympathetic tone (increases/decreases) glucagon output

decreases

15

if blood glucose drops, what is stimulated

glucagon output increases

16

hyperglycemic agent

will cause elevation in blood glucose

17

what does insulin do to glucagon output

suppresses it

18

normal range of blood glucose

80-120 mg/dL

19

hypoglycemic agent

decreases blood glucose

20

islets of langerhans beta cells location

middle of islets

21

islets of langerhans beta cells secrete

insulin

22

insulin release controlled by

blood glucose
glucagon
GI hormones
autonomics

23

what does insulin promote

storage of glucose

24

what forms can glucose be stored as

glycogen
amino acid
fat

25

islets of langerhans delta cells location

periphery of islets

26

islets of langerhans delta cells release

gastrin
somatostatin
(both are GI hormones)

27

islets of langerhans delta cells play a role in release of

glucagon
insulin
& balance between these 2 chemicals

28

only certainties of islets of langerhans F cells

release pancreatic polypeptide
found in pancreatic islet

29

what stimulates release of insulin

elevation of blood glucose
elevation of blood amino acids
GI hormones
parasympathetic stimulation to beta cells

30

what inhibits release of insulin

decreasing blood glucose
increasing levels of blood insulin
parasympathetic stimulation to alpha cells
increased glucagon output

31

general effects of insulin

facilitates uptake of glucose into cells
promotes synthesis of proteins, carboydrates, lipids, nucleic acids

32

insulin action at liver produces

increases glucose uptake
promotes synthesis of glycogen and fatty acids
decreases gluconeogenesis
decreases glycogenolysis
decreases ketogenesis (by inhibiting breaking down of fat)

33

insulin action at muscle produces

facilitation of production of carbohydrates

34

insulin action at adipose tissue produces

facilitation of production of lipid

35

gluconeogenesis

making new glucose

36

ketogenesis

making ketone bodies by breaking down of fat

37

insulin effects on muscle

promotes uptake of glucose and amino acids
increases glycogen synthesis
increases protein synthesis
decreases proteolysis

38

what do glucocorticoids do to muscle

decrease utilzation of glucose by muscle
decrease numbers of insulin receptors on muscle

39

insulin's effects on adipose tissue

promotes glucose uptake
stimulates fatty acid synthesis
decreases lipolysis (causes decrease in ketone bodies)

40

glucose intolerance

inability to control blood glucose within range of normal during various perturbations (80-120 mg/dL)

41

diagnostic criteria for diabetes

-more than 1 fasting plasma glucose level greater than 126 mg/dL
-oral glucose tolerance test plasma glucose level greater than 200 mg/dL in a 2 hr sample
-glucose level of 200 mg/dL at anytime of day combined with polydipsia, polyphagia, and polyuria

42

polydipsia

excessive thirst

43

polyphagia

excessive appetite

44

polyuria

excessive urine output

45

impaired glucose tolerance (pre-diabetic)

-higher than normal blood glucose levels but lower than those considered to indicate DM
-increased risk of type II diabetes and cardiovascular disease

46

is it possible to recover from impaired glucose tolerance

yes, with lifestyle changes (diet and exercise), a person can be put back into normal range

47

Type I Diabetes Mellitus

absolute insulin deficiency
due to genetic/environmental interaction
peaks at age 12
insulin dependent

48

what happens to beta cells in Type I DM

beta cells get destroyed and therefore do not produce insulin

49

subtypes of Type I DM

immune
nonimmune

50

immune subtype of Type I DM

cell mediated destruction of beta cells

51

nonimmune subtype of Type I DM

presence of genetic defect in beta cells (unusual)

52

what happens to you in type I DM

hyperglycemia
unexplained weight loss
ketoacidosis

53

hyperglycemia leads to

osmotic diuresis
polyuria
thirst

54

explanation for unexplained weight loss in type I DM

protein and fat are broken down for fuel due to unavailability of glucose

55

ketoacidosis results from

excessive fat breakdown