Leukocyte and Lymphoid Pathophysiology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Leukocyte and Lymphoid Pathophysiology Deck (48):
1

quantitative disorders

changes in number of WBCs
-Leukocytosis or leukopenia

2

qualitative disorders

disrupted function of WBCs

3

leukocytosis

elevation in # WBCs
-normal response with infection, stress, etc
-abnormal leukocytosis caused by malignancies or blood disorders

4

leukopenia

decrease in # WBCs
-abnormal

5

what causes leukopenia

decreased production in marrow or increased destruction
exposure to radiation
autoimmune disease
chemotherapy
anaphylactic shock

6

Infectious Mononucleosis

acute viral infection of B lymphocytes usually caused by Epstein-Barr virus

7

what do B-lymphocytes do

produce antibodies

8

what % of Mono cases are caused by Epstein-Barr virus?

80%

9

how is epstein barr virus spread

saliva (NOT airbourne)

10

A lymphocytosis

associated with infectious mononucleosis

11

typical symptoms of infectious mononucleosis

high fever
lymph node swelling
headache
sore throat
chills

12

age range for infectious mononucleosis

80% of kids infected by age 4
symptomatic IM usually occurs age 15-35
rare after age 40

13

how Mono is diagnosed

10% of lymphocytes are atypical
fever
pharyngitis
presence of heterophile antibodies (IgM)

14

tx for mono

rest and avoid strenuous activity
analgesics (ibuprofen)
antipyretics (meds that decrease fever)
treat any opportunistic infections with antibiotics

15

leukemias

malignant disorder of the blood and blood forming tissues

16

what tissues form blood

marrow

17

how does leukemia start

loss of regulation of cell division; bone marrow gets overcrowded which suppresses production of normal cells

18

4 subtypes of leukemia

Acute lymphocytic leukemia
Acute myelogenous leukemia
chronic lymphocytic leukemia
chronic myelogenous leukemia

19

acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL)

less than 30% lymphoblasts in blood or bone marrow
there is a blockage of cell differentiation, so the cells don't reach full function

20

what type of research has led to tx for ALL?

HIV

21

what is the most common leukemia in kids under age 10?

acutelymphocytic leukemia

22

complications of acute lymphocytic leukemia

bleeding disorders
anemia
opportunistic infections
enlargement of spleen and lymph nodes

23

why do spleen and lymph nodes enlarge?

cells accumulate in liver, spleen, and lymph nodes

24

is there a genetic component in ALL?

yes, but not clearly understood

25

what populations have increased incidence of ALL?

developed countries
higher socioeconomic groups

26

acute myelogenous leukemia

accumulation of myeloid precursor cells in bone marrow

27

what are myeloid precursor cells?

precursor to WBCs

28

risk factors for AML

exposure to radiation, chemotherapy, benzene
older age (highest in 50s)
downs syndrome

29

complications of AML

clotting disorders
anemia
infection

30

tx for ALL and AML

chemotherapy
bone marrow transplant (best in ALL)
stem cell transplant
blood transfusion (tx anemia)
nutrition therapy
antibiotics (treat opportunistic infection)

31

what causes chronic leukemias

acquired injury to DNA of a bone marrow stem cell
renegade cells

32

causes of injury to DNA

toxic compounds (carcinogens, benzene)
tobacco

33

what happens in chronic lymphocytic leukemia

B-cells fail to mature and produce antibodies
sometimes T cells are affected

34

tx of chronic lymphocytic leukemia

chemotherapy
steroid therapy
stem cell therapy?

35

how does chronic myelogenous leukemia start

renegade stem cell leads to excessive proliferation in marrow

36

sx of CML

painful enlargement of spleen
painful swelling of lymph nodes

37

tx of CML

chemotherapy
stem cell transplant
interferon therapy (investigational)

38

interferon therapy

prevents viral DNA from getting into host cells
may suppress and/or destroy renegade cells

39

most common types of malignant lymphomas

Hodgkin Lymphoma
Non-Hodgkins Lymphoma

40

Hodgkin lympoma most common in what populations

caucasions
teens, 20s, 50s, 60s

41

characteristics of Hodgkin Lymphoma

presence of Reed-Sternberg cells (malignant cells)

42

sx of Hodgkin Lymphoma

fever
weight loss
night sweats
swelling of lymph glandular tissue
increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate

43

tx of Hodgkin Lymphoma

radiation therapy
chemotherapy
marrow transplant
stem cell transplant

44

how many stages of Hodgkin Lymphoma

IV

45

Characteristics of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

several subcategories based on type of renegade cell
can have low, medium, and high grade

46

how is Non-Hodgkin lymphoma dx

biopsy of lymph tissue

47

tx of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

varies depending on type of cell involved
chemotherapy
radiation therapy
immunotherapy
cell transplantation (sometimes)

48

does Hodgkin or Non-Hodgkin lymphoma have a worse prognosis

Non-Hodgkin