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Flashcards in Thyroid (week 9) Deck (41):
1

what does the thyroid secrete

thyroid hormone (T3, T4)
parathyroid hormone
calcitonin

2

what hormones secreted by the thyroid are involved in calcium balance

parathyroid hormone
calcitonin

3

what is calcium involved in in the body

nerve and muscle activity

4

precursors for thyroid hormone

monoiodotyrosine (MIT)
diiodotyrosine (DIT)

5

how is T4 formed

two DIT combine

6

how is T3 formed

one MIT and one DIT

7

how will thyroid hormone affect ability to exercise

too low or high levels of T3 and T4 can affect nerve and muscle function

8

effects of thyroid hormone

-necessary for development
-increases fat, protein, and glucose metabolism
-increases body temp

9

permissive hormone

a hormone that does not have a direct effect on tissue, but must be present for normal cell fxn

10

examples of permissive hormones

T3
T4

11

how does the body respond to sympathetic stimulation (norepinephrine) when T3&4 are in excess

excessive response

12

thyrotoxicosis

condition in which thyroid hormones are elevated inapproptiately

13

possible causes of thyrotoxicosis

1. intrinsic influences, such as elevated TSH
2.extrinsic influences, such as ingesting thyroid hormone inappropriately

14

causes of goiter

*overstimulation of thyroid gland*
1. low iodine intake (overworks thyroid)
2. increased TSH

15

symptoms of thyrotoxicosis

-increased metabolism
-heat intolerance
-sensitivity to sympathetic stim
-goiter

16

Grave's Disease

autoimmune disorder where antibodies overstimulate thyroid tissue, rather than destroy tissue

17

most common cause of hyperthyroidism and thyrotoxicosis

Grave's Disease

18

LATS

Long Acting Thyroid Stimulator
-appear in the blood with Grave's Disease
-thyroid stimulating antibodies

19

symptoms of Grave's Disease

ongoing thyrotoxicosis
unexplained weight loss
night sweats
fluctuating BP
mood changes
exopthalamos

20

exopthalamos

"bug eyes"
occurs due to excessive weight loss around eyes

21

thyrotoxic crisis AKA

thyroid storm

22

thyrotoxic crisis symptoms

hyperthermia
tachycardia
delirium
high output cardiac failure (heart can't keep up with demands)

23

cause of thyrotoxic crisis

Graves Disease left untreated

24

treatment for thyrotoxic crisis

remove thyroid
radioactive iodine
propylthiouacil

25

what is radioactive iodine used for in stopping thyroid storm

destroy some thyroid tissue to decrease output of T3 T4

26

what does propylthiouracil do

blocks synthesis of thyroid hormone

27

how is propylthiouracil ideally administered

if thyroid storm caught in time, drug is titrated (T3 T4 monitored and dosage adjusted based on levels of T3 T4 in blood)

28

primary hypothyroidism

inflammation of the thyroid

29

causes of primary hypothyroidism

acute thyroiditis
subacute thyroiditis
autoimmune thyroiditis
irradiation of thyroid
iodine deficiency
surgical removal of thyroid
Lithium

30

acute thyroiditis cause

rare; usually due to bacterial infection of thyroid

31

subacute thyroiditis cause

nonbacterial infection of thyroid, often preceded by viral infection

32

autoimmune thyroiditis cause

autoimmune attack of thyroid tissue
acute thyroiditis can lead to autoimmune thyroiditis

33

subacute thyroiditis duration

2-4 months

34

treatment of subacute thyroiditis

corticosteroids

35

secondary hypothyroidism caused by

pituitary dysfunction/hypofunction

36

symptoms of hypothyroidism

-decreased energy, metabolism, heat production
-cold intolerance
-lethargy
-fatigue
-myxedemia
-hair texture change (more course)

37

myxedemia

AKA boggy edema; swelling where you can push your finger into it and leave an imprint that stays for a few minutes; usually occurs around eyes

38

Congenital Hypothyroidism (Cretinism)

absence of thyroid tissue at birth

39

incidence of cretinism

1 in 4000 live births

40

effects of cretinism if left untreated

mental retardation/developmental delay
stunted skeletal growth

41

treatment for Cretinism

hormone replacement therapy (synthroid)
highly effective if treatment initiated by 3-4 months of age; child can function completely normally with treatment