Neoplastic 2 (Week 11) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Neoplastic 2 (Week 11) Deck (25):
1

dominant oncogenes function

encode for proteins that are growth factors

2

what typically happens when dominant oncogenes mutate

overexpression/amplification of growth factor encoding

3

tumor suppressor genes encode for

proteins that inhibit uncontrolled cell division as well as prevention of mutations

4

what happens when tumor suppressor genes are mutated

lose inhibition of uncontrolled cell division
lose prevention of mutations

5

point mutation

change in a single base pair or a few base pairs on DNA that will change activity of proteins
(seen in pancreatic cancer and colorectal cancer)

6

chromosome translocation

piece of one chromosome translocated to another chromosome resulting in production of a proliferation factor or production of novel proteins that have growth or proliferation influences (CML)

7

gene amplification

oncogenes become inappropriately active
-multiple duplication of a small section of chromosomes causing excessive growth factor production

8

human epidermal growth factor receptors

receptors that have greater than normal activity when stimulated and/or more receptors than normal
-over expressed in cancers such as breast, lung, gastric, and colon

9

vascular endothelial growth factor

-normally present, but becomes unregulated in some cancers
-stimulate angiogenesis
-helps maintain tumors

10

tumor suppressor gene shutdown

mutation of cells that inhibit cell growth and prevent mutation of cells so that they no longer serve this function
-requires 2 separate mutations at the allele for this to happen

11

exogenous sequences

insertion of viral DNA that lead to changes in a cell making it a cancerous cell

12

examples of exogenous sequences

-hep B and C are associated with liver cancer
-HPV associated with cervical cancer
-epstein barr associated with lymphoma
-heliobacter pylori (causes peptic ulceration) associated with stomach cancer

13

heredity of cancer

-mutations that cause cancer are not heritable
-genetic predisposition to these cell mutations being easier to occur is heritable
-need genetic disposition + environmental trigger
-it is rare for mutated genes to be heritable

14

Examples of inherited mutated genes causing cancer

retinoblastoma
Wilms tumor
neurofibromatosis
inherited breast cancer
adenomas of colon
(these are usually due to inactivated tumor supressor cells)

15

How does chronic inflammation lead to cancer

ongoing release of cytokines, growth factors, free radicals, and greater COX2 activity (produces more prostaglandin)

16

carcinogens

environmental agents that are associated with increased risk of cancer

17

how does tobacco cause cancer

lots of free radicals and inflammatory compounds

18

tobacco use related to which kinds of cancers

lung
urinary tract
upper digestive tract
liver
kidney
pancreas
cervix
myeloid leukemia

19

how much ionizing radiation exposure is associated with greater risk of cancer

10 cGy

20

what cancers are associated with radiation exposure

leukemia
thyroid
breast

21

UV radiation is linked to what kinds of cancer

squamous cell carcinoma
melanoma
(inflammation is an important factor)

22

alcohol consumption associated with what kinds of cancer

oral cavity
esophagus
liver

23

why does smoking in conjunction with alcohol use amplify carcinogenic effects?

enzymes in liver work to eliminate alcohol, so there are less available to work to remove smoke

24

uterine cancer in women is associated with what lifestyle habits

HPV- # of sexual partners
smoking

25

what is the recommended amount of exercise to receive the decreased risk of colon and breast cancer

3.5-4 hrs/week