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Flashcards in Glycolysis Deck (70)
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31

two examples of substrate level phopsphorylation

 

1. 1,3-BPG to 3PG

2, PEP to pyruvate 

32

describe the steps from GAP -------------> pyruvate

33

how many ATP are made from GLucose to Pyruvate?

4 ATP

34

what is the NET agian of ATP from glucose to two pyruvate

net gain of 2

35

what is the net gain of NADH from glucose to two pyruvate?

2 NADH

36

Under anaerobic conditions, pyruvate is reduced by glycolytic NADH to ___

give lactate

37

Under aerobic conditions, glycolytic NADH is ____  and pyruvate enters the CAC

indirectly oxidized by oxidative phosphorylation

38

enzyme that converts pyruvate to lactate?

lactate dehydrogenase

39

when pyruvate is being converted to lactate, the __ carbon of pyruvate get a hydride transer with a pronation of the hydroxyl rgroup

C2 carbon

40

galactose is converted to ___ to enter glycolysis

G6P

41

___ and ____ are converted to F6P to enter glycolysis

mannose and fructose

42

fructose is converted to ___ in the liver to enter glycolysis

GAP

43

order in which frucotse, galactose, and mannose enter the glycolsis pathway

44

what converts fructose to F6P in tissues other than the liver?

hexokinase

45

what converts fructose to 2GAP in the liver? 

1. Fructokinase

2. F1P Aldolase


3. Glyceraldehyde Kinase

4. Trios-P Isomerase 

46

Deficiencies in ___ cause liver damage and hypoglycemia

F1P Aldolase

47

Deficiencies in F1P Aldolase cause ___ and ___

liver damage and hypoglycemia

48

enzymes invovled in the conversion of mannose to F6P?

1. hexokinase

2. phopsomannose isommerase

49

enzymes invovled in teh converstion of galactose to G6p?

 1.  Galactokinase

2.  a UMP Transferase

3.  an Epimerase

4.  Phosphoglucomutase

50

• A deficiency in ____ results in Galactitol formation which causes cataracts

Galactokinase

51

A deficiency in Galactokinase results in Galactitol formation which causes___

 cataracts

52

A deficiency in the UMP transferase causes ____ (2)

mental retardation and liver failure

53

A deficiency in the _____ causes mental retardation and liver failure

UMP transferase

54

when second galactose
comes along,
the first is converted to ___

G1P

55

first step in breakdown of glycogen

 

glycogen phosphorylase

produces G1P

56

first step in conversion of G1P to glycogen?

UTP is added to G1P to pshoprylate it to become UDP-glucose

57

The phosphoryl of G1P condenses with the ____ of UTP to give UDP-Glu + PPi

α-phosphoryl 

58

what is needed to pull the G1P to UDP-glucose reaction to completion?

pyrophosphatase cleaves PPi to 2Pi

59

The C4 hydroxyl of the Glu unit at the end of a Glycogen chain condenses with the___ carbon of UDP-Glu

 C1

60

enzyme invovled in conversion of UDP-glucose to glycogen?

glucose synthase