two examples of substrate level phopsphorylation
1. 1,3-BPG to 3PG
2, PEP to pyruvate
describe the steps from GAP -------------> pyruvate
how many ATP are made from GLucose to Pyruvate?
what is the NET agian of ATP from glucose to two pyruvate
net gain of 2
what is the net gain of NADH from glucose to two pyruvate?
Under anaerobic conditions, pyruvate is reduced by glycolytic NADH to ___
Under aerobic conditions, glycolytic NADH is ____ and pyruvate enters the CAC
indirectly oxidized by oxidative phosphorylation
enzyme that converts pyruvate to lactate?
when pyruvate is being converted to lactate, the __ carbon of pyruvate get a hydride transer with a pronation of the hydroxyl rgroup
galactose is converted to ___ to enter glycolysis
___ and ____ are converted to F6P to enter glycolysis
mannose and fructose
fructose is converted to ___ in the liver to enter glycolysis
order in which frucotse, galactose, and mannose enter the glycolsis pathway
what converts fructose to F6P in tissues other than the liver?
what converts fructose to 2GAP in the liver?
2. F1P Aldolase
3. Glyceraldehyde Kinase
4. Trios-P Isomerase
Deficiencies in ___ cause liver damage and hypoglycemia
Deficiencies in F1P Aldolase cause ___ and ___
liver damage and hypoglycemia
enzymes invovled in the conversion of mannose to F6P?
2. phopsomannose isommerase
enzymes invovled in teh converstion of galactose to G6p?
2. a UMP Transferase
3. an Epimerase
• A deficiency in ____ results in Galactitol formation which causes cataracts
A deficiency in Galactokinase results in Galactitol formation which causes___
A deficiency in the UMP transferase causes ____ (2)
mental retardation and liver failure
A deficiency in the _____ causes mental retardation and liver failure
when second galactose
the first is converted to ___
first step in breakdown of glycogen
first step in conversion of G1P to glycogen?
UTP is added to G1P to pshoprylate it to become UDP-glucose
The phosphoryl of G1P condenses with the ____ of UTP to give UDP-Glu + PPi
what is needed to pull the G1P to UDP-glucose reaction to completion?
pyrophosphatase cleaves PPi to 2Pi
The C4 hydroxyl of the Glu unit at the end of a Glycogen chain condenses with the___ carbon of UDP-Glu
enzyme invovled in conversion of UDP-glucose to glycogen?