gold usmle: anti-infective pharm Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in gold usmle: anti-infective pharm Deck (42):
1

Primaquine

Malaria profylaxis
5. Used for extraerythrocytic forms Plasmodium vivax or P. ovale

2

Ciporfloxacin

Quinolone derivative

3

Sulfonamides

PABA structural analogs
8. Inhibit Folic acid synthesis

4

Tertacyclines, anuria & the exception

Should not be used in anuric pt due to production of (-) Nitrogen balance & ↑d BUN levels.
10. Doxycycline is the exception

5

Ceftriazone

3rd generation cephalosporin
12. DOC for bacterial meningitis in kids (ie… HiB)
13. One dose txt of gonorrhea

6

Hepatic coma DOC

Neomycin (aminoglycoside) – it supresses the normal flora = ↓g NH4 production = ↓g free
nitrogen levels in the bloodstream.

7

Clavulanic acid

Irreversible (-)r of β lactamases, but ot of transpeptidase = use w/ a β lactamase sensitive
penicillin

8

Piperacillin

Txt Pseudomonas aeruginosa & Klebsiella
17. Broad spectrum antibiotic

9

Streptomycin (aminoglycoside)

Txt Mycobacterium tuberculosis

10

Isoniazid

Most commonly used drug for TB.
20. Usually combined w/ Rifampin and/or Ethambutol
21. Pre Txt w/ Pyridoxine (Vit B6) can prevent peripheral neuritis‘

11

Pyrantel Pamoate

Txt of Hookworm disease
23. Depolarizing NMJ (-)r

12

Buy “AT” 30, “CELL” at 50

A = Aminoglycosides
25. T = Tetracyclines
26. C = Chloramphenicol
27. E = Erythromycin (macrolide)
28. L = Clindamycin
29. L = Lincomycin

13

Cefoxitin

Txt intraabdominal infections (ie… w/ Bacteroides fragilis)
31. Traditional txt has been Clindamycin & Gentamycin

14

Chloramphenicol

Broad spectrum antibiotic
33. Bone marrow depression (common) – Aplastic anemia (rare)
34. Gray baby syndrome (chloramphenicol cannot be conjugated)
35. DOC Typhoid Fever (symptomatic Salmonella infection)
36. DOC HiB meningitis in kids – especially resistant strain to ampicillin

15

Nifurtimox

Txt trypanosomiasis

16

Metronidazole

Txt Leishmaniasis & Amebiasis
39. Good for anaerobic bacteria = Bacteroides fragilis
40. DOC Trichomoniasis
41. DOC Giardia lamblia

17

Txt P. carinii

TMP-SMX & Pentamidine

18

Tetracycline

Txt of Brucellosis & Cholera
44. Txt Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
45. Txt spirochete infections = Lyme disease (Borrelia burgdorferi)

19

TMP-SMX

(-) dihydrofolate reductase activity

20

Benzathine Penicillin G

Long duration of action = given once every 3-4 weeks for Txt of Syphilis

21

Praziquantel

Txt Schistosomiasis (trematode [fluke] infections)

22

Melarsoprol

Txt Trypanosomiasis that has neurological symptoms

23

Stibogluconate

Txt Leishmaniasis

24

Fluconazole

Txt fungal encephalitis

25

Amphotericin B

Polyene antifingal

26

Ketoconazole MOA

(-) fungal ergosterol synthesis = disrupts membrane

27

Griseofulvin MOA

Accumulates in keratinized layers of the skin = used in dermatomycoses infections

28

Mefloquine

Anti malarial
56. Txt Chloroquine resistant strains = P. falciparum

29

Chloroquine

Txt for Malaria when inside RBC

30

Nifurtimox

DOC Chagas disease due to Trypanosoma cruzi

31

Erythromycin

Used in pts allergic to penicillins

32

Nystatin

Topical txt of superficial mycotic infections = Candidiasis

33

Acyclovir

Guanine analog
62. Txt Herpes infections

34

Imipenem

Used w/ Cilastatin
64. Can cause seizures

35

Cefoperazone side effects

Bleeding due to vit K level alterations
66. Contraindicated in pts w/ bleeding disorders

36

Vancomycin

Used for MRSS (methicillin resistant Staph. Aureus)
68. “Red neck”: due to histamine release causes facial flushing

37

Meropenem

used w/ Cilastatin
70. Does not cause seizures (cf w/ Imipenem)

38

Nafcillin

Only penicillin that does not need dose adjustment in renal impairment

39

Peripheral neuropathy

Seen w/ use of:
73. Metronidazole – Isoniazid – Vincristine – ddI – AZT – Allopurinol

40

Sulfonamides & newborns

Kernicterus can occur

41

“O.N.E.” for gonorrhea

Fluoroquinolones used in a one dose deal for gonorrhea:
76. O = Ofloxacin
77. N = Norfloxacin
78. E = Enoxacin

42

Ribavirin

Txt RSV (Respiratory Syncytial Virus)