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Flashcards in Pathoma: Principles of Neoplasia Deck (69)
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1

definition of neoplasia

new tissue growth that is unregulated, irreversible, and monoclonal

2

definition of monoclonal

the neoplastic cells are derived from a single mother cell

3

How is clonality of B lymphocytes determine

Ig light chain phenotype
Immunoglobulin composed of heavy and light chains that is either kappa or lambda
normal kappa to lambda is 3:1
monoclonal is 6:1 or inverted 1:3

4

benign neoplastic tumors

remain localized and do not metastasize

5

malignant neoplastic tumors

invade locally and have the potential to metastasize

6

Epithelium tumors nomenclature - benign and malignant

Benign: adenoma, papilloma
Malignant: adenocarcinoma, Papillary carcinoma

7

Mesenchyme tumors nomenclature - benign and malignant

Benign: lipoma
Malignant: liposarcoma

8

lymphocyte tumors nomenclature - benign and malignant

Benign: does not exist
Malignant: lymphoma, leukemia

9

Melanocyte tumors nomenclature - benign and malignant

Benign: Nevus
Malignant: Melanoma

10

most common cancers by incidence in adults

1) breast/prostate
2) lung
3) colorectal

11

most common cause of cancer mortality

1) lung
2) breast/prostate
3) colorectal

12

definition of carcinogens

agents that damage DNA, increasing the risk for cancer

13

What is the associated cancer with this carcinogenic chemical:
Aflatoxins

Hepatocellular carcinoma

Derived from aspergillus, which can contaminate stored rice and grains

14

What is the associated cancer with this carcinogenic chemical:
Alkylating agents

leukemia/lymphoma

side effect of chemo

15

What is the associated cancer with this carcinogenic chemical:
alcohol

squamous cell carcinoma of oropharynx and upper esophagus,
hepatocellular carcinoma

16

What is the associated cancer with this carcinogenic chemical:
arsenic

squamous cell carcinoma of skin, lung cancer, and angiosarcoma of liver

arsenic is present in cigarette smoke

17

What is the associated cancer with this carcinogenic chemical:
nitrosamines

stomach carcinoma

found in smoked foods
responsible for high rate of stomach carcinoma in Japan

18

What is the associated cancer with this carcinogenic chemical:
naphthylamine

urothelial carcinoma of bladder

derived from cigarette smoke

19

What is the associated cancer with this carcinogenic chemical:
vinyl chloride

angiosarcoma of liver

occupational exposure
used to make PVC

20

What is the associated cancer with this carcinogenic chemical:
nickel, chromium, beryllium, or silica

lung carcinoma

occupational carcinoma

21

What is the associated cancer with this carcinogenic chemical:
asbestos

lung carcinoma and mesothelioma

exposure to asbestos is more likely to lead to lung cancer than mesothelioma

22

What is the associated cancer with this carcinogenic chemical:
cigaretter smoke

carcinoma of oropharynx, esophagus, lung, kidney, bladder, and pancreas

most common carcinogen worldwide, polycyclic hydrocarbons are particularly carcinogenic

23

What is the associated cancer with this carcinogenic oncogenic virus:
EBV

nasopharyngeal carcinoma, burkitt lymphoma, and CNS lymphoma in AIDS

24

What is the associated cancer with this carcinogenic oncogenic virus:
HHV-8

Kaposi Sarcoma

25

What is the associated cancer with this carcinogenic oncogenic virus:
HBV and HCV

Hepatocellular carcinoma

26

What is the associated cancer with this carcinogenic oncogenic virus:
HTLV-1

Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma

27

What is the associated cancer with this carcinogenic oncogenic virus:
High-risk HPV (16,18,31,33)

squamous cell carcinoma of vulva, vagina, anus, and cervix, adenocarcinoma of cervix

28

What is the associated cancer with radiation:
ionizing (nuclear reactor accidents and radiotherapy)

AML, CML, and papillary carcinoma of the thyroid

generates hydroxyl free radicals

29

What is the associated cancer with radiation:
nonionizing (UVB sunlight is most common source)

basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and melanoma of skin

results in formation of pyrimidine dimers in DNA, which are normally excised by restriction endonuclease

30

Function
Mechanism
associated tumor of:
PDGFB

platelet-derived growth factor
overexpression, autocrine loop
astrocytoma