neuro Flashcards Preview

neuro > neuro > Flashcards

Flashcards in neuro Deck (99)
Loading flashcards...
1

Mode of pathogen progression of Listeria for immunosuppressed and pregnant women

ingestion of unpasteurized milk, soft cheeses, coleslaw, and ready to eat turkey and pork

2

bacteria causing neonatal meningitis

Group B Strep, Listeria, E. Coli

3

Listeria monocytogenes

G+, beta hemolytic, catalase +, bacillus, causes meningitis in neonates
can be contracted by passage through birth canal, inhalation of infected amniotic fluid, or nosocomial infection: in immunosuppressed most common route is ingestion of unpasteurized milk

4

ACA supplies what area of the brain, and when damaged causes

medial surface of the brain, motor and sensory cortices of the contralateral leg and foot

5

layers of the head from superficial to deep

skin, periosteum, bone, dura mater, arachnoid, pia, and brain parenchyma

6

Meningeal layers of the brain

dura, arachnoid, pia

7

subarachnoid hemorrhage sx

worst HA ever, nuchal rigidity

8

Most common causes of subarachnoid hemorrhages

berry aneurysms, less commonly from arteriovenous malformations

9

CSF in subarachnoid hemorrhages

appear yellow - bilirubin in CSF, sign of hemorrhage and blood cell breakdown because the subarachnoid space is continuous with the spinal space

10

Intraparenchymal hemorrhage

caused by chronic hypertension, commonly affect the basal ganglia and thalamus - grossly appears more like a bruise and less like a pool of blood like a subarachnoid hemorrhage

11

subdural hemorrhage

caused by damage to bridging veins, potential space between dura and arachnoid mater

12

epirdural hemorrhage

temperoparietal bone fx, damage to the middle meningeal artery

13

Huntington Disease

chorea, dystonia, altered behavior, and dementia
AD
CAG triplet repeats on 4p
Genetic Anticipation
Caudate and Putamen are mainly affected, altering indirect pathway of basal ganglia - loss of motor inhibition
Gliosis - proliferation of astrocytes in areas of CNS damage
imaging - lateral ventricles may appear dilated due to caudate atrophy
Reserpine - minimizes motor abnormalities

14

Alzheimer's Disease

Most common cause of dementia in elderly
deposition of neuritic plaques - abnormally cleaved amyloid protein
Neurofibrillary tangles - phosphorylated tau protein in cerebral cortex
Doneprezil/Vitamin E therapy - slows down progression

15

Wilson Disease

AR
failure of copper to enter the circulation bound to ceruloplasmin due to problem with excretion of copper from the liver
copper accumulation in the liver, corneas, and basal ganglia
Sx - asterixis, parkinsonian symptoms, cirrhosis, Kayser-Fleischer rings (corneal deposits of copper)

16

Parkinson Disease

Loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra leading to depigmentation
Alter direct pathway of basal ganglia, decreasing excitation
Difficulty initiating movement, cogwheel rigidity, shuffling gait, pill-rolling tremor
Tx - Levodopa/Carbidopa combo

17

MS

scattered plaques of demyelination anywhere in the CNS
periventricular areas and the optic nerve are commonly affected due to high levels of myelination
Oligodendricytes (responsible for CNS myelination) are autoimmune targets
recurrent multifocal lesions separated in time and space
optic neuritis, internuclear ophthalmoplegia (diff. with horizontal eye movements), sensory and motor changes, Lhermitte sign (electric shock felt down the spine with neck flexion

18

meningohydroencephalocele

protrusion of the meninges, brain, and portion of the ventricle through a defect in the skull

19

spina bifida with meningomyelocele

protrusion of the meninges and spinal cord through a vertebral defect to form a sac

20

meningoencephalocele

protrusion of the meninges and brain through a defect in the skull

21

protrusion of the meninges through a defect in the skull

meningocele

22

Spina Bifida with meningocele

protrusion of the meninges through a vertebral defect to form a sac, spinal cord remains in its normal position

23

Foramina of the Trigeminal Nerve

Standing Room Only
Superior Orbital Fissure - V1
Foramen Rotundum - V2
Foramen Ovale - V3

24

Compression of the CN V3

mandibular division - numbness of the ipsilateral jaw and lower face

25

Compression of CN V2

maxillary division - decreased sensation over the cheek and middle face
leaves skull through foramen rotundum

26

What foramen transmits IX, X, XI

Jugular Foramen

27

Glossopharyngeal

motor inervation of stylopharyngeus muscle, parasympathetic innervation of the parotid gland, nd sensory innervation of the pharynx, middle ear, and posterior third of the tongue
Also innervates chemoreceptors and baroreceptors of the carotid body

28

Vagus Nerve

motor innervation of the pharyngeal and laryngeal muscles, parasympathetic innervation to visceral organs, sensory innervation to the pharynx and meninges
Also innervates chemoreceptors and baroreceptors of the aortic arch

29

Spinal Accessory Nerve

XI
innervates the sternocleidomastoid and upper part of the trapezius muscle

30

What passes through the superior orbital fissure

III, IV, V1, VI, superior ophthalmic vein
oculomotor, trochlear, ophthalmic, abducens
lesions of these nerves lead to ipsilateral extraocular muscle paralysis - III, IV, VI
numbness of the ipsilateral forehead and upper face - V1