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Flashcards in gold usmle: Hallmark Findings Deck (154):
1

Albumino-Cytologic Dissociation

Guillain-Barre (markedly increased protein in CSF with only modest increase in cell count)

2

Antiplatelet Antibodies

Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura

3

Arachnodactyly

Marfan’s

4

Aschoff Bodies

Rheumatic fever

5

Auer Rods

Acute promyelocytic leukemia (AML type M3)

6

Autosplenectomy

Sickle cell anemia: switch a glu ! val in β chain
198. Low O2 ↑ sickling
199. Aplastic crisis w/ B19 (Parvovirus ssDNA) infection
200. Salmonella osteomyelitis
201. Vaso-occlusive painful crisises
202. Hydroxyurea as Txt (↑ HbF) & Bone marrow transplant

7

Babinski

UMN lesion

8

Basophilic Stippling of RBCs

Lead poisoning

9

Bence Jones Protein

Multiple myeloma free light chains (either kappa or lambda)
206. Waldenstrom’s macroglobinemia

10

Birbeck Granules

Histiocytosis X (eosinophilic granuloma)

11

Blue Bloater

Chronic Bronchitis (at least 3 months for at least 2 years of ecessive mucus secretion & chronic
recurrent productive cough)

12

Boot-Shaped Heart

Tetralogy of Fallot

13

Bouchard’s Nodes

Osteoarthritis (Proximal IP joint of the fingers)

14

Boutonniere’s Deformity

Rheumatoid arthritis flex proximal & extend distal IP joints

15

Brown Tumor

Hyperparathyroidism

16

Brushfield Spots

Down’s

17

Call-Exner Bodies

Granulosa cell tumor: associated w/ endometrial hyperplasia & carcinoma
215. Granuloma-Theca cell tumor

18

Cardiomegaly with Apical Atrophy

Chagas’ Disease

19

Chancre

1° Syphilis

20

Chancroid

Haemophilus ducreyi

21

Charcot Triad

Multiple sclerosis = nystagmus, intention tremor, scanning speech

22

Charcot-Leyden Crystals

Bronchial asthma

23

Cheyne-Stokes Breathing

Cerebral lesion

24

Chocolate Cysts

Endometriosis

25

Chvostek’s Sign

Hypocalcemia facial spasm in tetany

26

Clue Cells

Gardnerella vaginitis

27

Codman’s Triangle

Osteosarcoma

28

Cold Agglutinins

Mycoplasma pneumoniae
227. Infectious mononucleosis

29

Condyloma Lata

2° Syphilis
229. New coffee flavor at Bagel & Bagel

30

Cotton Wool Spots

HTN
231. Aka, cytoid bodies seen w/ SLE (yellowish cotton wool fundal lesions)

31

Councilman Bodies

Dying hepatocytes – HepB

32

Crescents In Bowman’s Capsule

Rapidly progressive (crescentic glomerulonephritis)

33

Currant-Jelly Sputum

Klebsiella

34

Curschmann’s Spirals

Bronchial asthma

35

Depigmentation Of Substantia Nigra

Parkinson’s

36

Donovan Bodies

Granuloma inguinale (STD)

37

Eburnation

Osteoarthritis (polished, ivory-like appearance of bone)

38

Ectopia Lentis

Marfan’s

39

Erythema Chronicum Migrans

Lyme Disease

40

Fatty Liver

Alcoholism

41

Ferruginous Bodies

Asbestosis - & Iron laden

42

Ghon Focus / Complex

Tuberculosis (1° & 2°, respectively)

43

Glitter Cells

Acute Pyelonephritis

44

Gower’s Maneuver

Duchenne’s MD use of arms to stand

45

Heberden’s Nodes

Osteoarthritis (Distal IP joint of the fingers)

46

Heinz Bodies

G6PDH Deficiency

47

Heterophil Antibodies

Infectious mononucleosis (EBV)

48

Hirano Bodies

Alzheimer’s

49

Hypersegmented PMNs

Megaloblastic anemia

50

Hypochromic Microcytic RBCs

Iron-deficiency anemia or β Thalassemia

51

Jarisch-Herxheimer Reaction

Syphilis over-aggressive treatment of an asymptomatic pt. that causes symptoms 2° to rapid lysis

52

Joint Mice

Osteoarthritis (fractured osteophytes)

53

Kaussmaul Breathing

Acidosis / Diabetic Ketoacidosis

54

Keratin Pearls

Squamous Cell CA of skin Actinic Keratosis is a precursor

55

Keyser-Fleischer Ring

Wilson’s

56

Kimmelstiel-Wilson Nodules

Diabetic nephropathy: Nodular Glomerulosclerosis nodules of mesangial matrix

57

Koilocytes

HPV 6 & 11 (condyloma acuminatum - benign) and HPV 16 & 18 (malignant association)

58

Koplik Spots

Measles

59

Lewy Bodies

Parkinson’s (eosinophilic inclusions in damaged substantia nigra cells)

60

Lines of Zahn

Arterial thrombus

61

Lisch Nodules

Neurofibromatosis (von Recklinhausen’s disease) = pigmented iris hamartomas

NF I

62

Lumpy-Bumpy IF Glomeruli

Poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis – prototype of nephritic syndrome

63

Mallory Bodies

Alcoholic hepatitis

64

McBurney’s Sign

Appendicitis (McBurney’s Point is 2/3 of the way from the umbilicus to anterior superior iliac spine)

65

Michealis-Gutmann Bodies

Malakoplakia lesion on bladder due to macros & calcospherites (M-G Bodies): usually due to E. Coli

66

Monoclonal Antibody Spike

Multiple myeloma this is called the M protein (usually IgG or IgA)
268. MGUS

67

Myxedema

Hypothyroidism

68

Negri Bodies

Rabies

Intracytoplasmic

69

Neuritic Plaques

Alzheimer’s

70

Neurofibrillary Tangles

Alzheimer’s

Hyper phosphorylated Tau

71

Non-pitting Edema

Myxedema
274. Anthrax Toxin

72

Notching of Ribs

Coarctation of Aorta

73

Nutmeg Liver

CHF = causing congested liver

74

Owls Eye Cells

CMV
278. Reed Sternburg Cells (Hodkins Lymphoma)
279. Aschoff cells seen w/ Rheumatic Fever

75

Painless Jaundice

Pancreatic CA (head)

76

Pannus

Rheumatoid arthritis, also see morning stiffnes that ↓ w/ joint use, HLA-DR4

77

Pautrier’s Microabscesses

Mycosis fungoides (cutaneous T-cell lymphoma), Sezary

78

Philadelphia Chromosome

CML

9:22?

79

Pick Bodies

Pick’s Disease

Frontotemporal "Knife-edge" degeneration

80

2 types of COPD

Pink Puffer – Type A: Emphysema
286. Blue Bloater – Type B: Bronchitis
287. Emphysema Centroacinar – smoking Panacinar - α1-antitrypsin deficiency

81

Podagra

Gout (MP joint of hallux)

82

Port-Wine Stain

Hemangioma

83

Posterior Anterior Drawer Sign

Tearing of the ACL

84

Psammoma Bodies

291. Papillary adenocarcinoma of the thyroid
292. Serous papillary cystadenocarcinoma of the ovary
293. Meningioma
294. Mesothelioma

85

Pseudohypertrophy

Seen w/ Duchenne muscular dystrophy @ the claf muscles, due to ↑ fat

86

Punched-Out Bone Lesions

Multiple myeloma

87

Rash on Palms & Soles

2° Syphilis
298. RMSF
299. Coxsackie virus infection: Hand-Foot-Mouth Disease

88

Red Morning Urine

Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. You would use Ham’s test to confirm.

89

Reed-Sternberg Cells

Hodgkin’s Disease

90

Reid Index Increased

Chronic bronchitis = ↑d ratio of bronchial gland to bronchial wall thickness

91

Reinke Crystals

Leydig cell tumor

92

Rouleaux Formation

Multiple myeloma RBC’s stacked as poker chips

93

S3 Heart Sound

L→R Shunt (VSD, PDA, ASD)
306. Mitral Regurg
307. LV Failure

94

S4 Heart Sound

Pulmonary Stenosis
309. Pulmonary HTN

95

Schwartzman Reaction

Neisseria meningitidis impressive rash with bugs

96

Smith Antigen

SLE (also anti-dsDNA)
312. Malar Rash, Wire loop kidney lesions, Joint pain, False (+) syphilis test (VDRL)
313. 90% 14-45 yo females
314. also seen w/ use of INH; Procainamide; Hydralazine = SLE-like syndrome

97

Soap Bubble on X-Ray

Giant cell tumor of bone

98

Spike & Dome Glomeruli

Membranous glomerulonephritis = Nephrotic syndrome
317. Spike = basement membrane material & Dome = immune complex deposits (IgG orC3)

99

String Sign on X-ray

Crohn’s bowel wall thickening

100

Target Cells

Thalassemia in α Thalassemia w/ no α gene: Hydrops Fetalis & Intrauterine death associations = HbBarts

101

Tendinous Xanthomas

Familial Hypercholesterolemia

102

Thyroidization of Kidney

Chronic pyelonephritis

103

Tophi

Gout

104

Tram-Track Glomeruli

Membranoproliferative GN: Nephritic syndrome – basement membrane is duplicated into 2 layers

105

Trousseau'’s Sign

324. Visceral ca, classically pancreatic (migratory thrombophlebitis)
325. Hypocalcemia (carpal spasm)
326. These are two entirely different disease processes and different signs, but they unfortunately have the same
name.

106

Virchow’s Node

Supraclavicular node enlargement by metastatic carcinoma of the stomach

107

Warthin-Finkeldey Giant Cells

Measles

108

WBC Casts

Pyelonephritis

109

Whipple’s Triad

CNS disfunction – Hypoglycemic episodes – glu injection reverses CNS Sympt’s

110

Wire Loop Glomeruli

Lupus nephropathy, type IV (diffuse proliferative form)

111

↑ Alpha Feto Protein in amniotic fluid or mother’s
serum

Spina Bifida
333. Anencephaly

112

↑ Uric Acid

Gout
335. Lesch Nyhan
336. Myeloproliferative Disorders
337. Diuretics (Loop & Thiazides)

113

↓ FEV1/FVC

COPD

114

“Ground Glass” on chest x-ray
(Hyaline)

Due to Pneumocystis carinii
340. Seen w/ Atelectasia

115

Honey Combing of the lung

Seen w/ Asbestosis (a restrictive lung disease)

116

Crescents

Goodpastures syndrome (pneumonia w/ hemoptysis & rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis)

117

Linear Ig Deposits

Goodpastures syndrome

118

45 Degree Branch Points

Aspergillosis

119

PAS(+) Dutcher Bodies

Waldenstrom’s Macroglobulinemia = ↑IgM = Hyperviscosity

120

“Ground Glass” in Abdomen(Hyaline)

Seen in the hepatocytes of healthy carriers of HBsAg in liver biopsies

121

“Signet Ring” Cells

Cells that replace the ovaries, due to Krukenberg’s tumor that has metastasized from the
stomach

122

Ground Glass Appearance (Hyaline)

Seen w/ Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy oligodendrocytes
349. Nuclei seen in Papillary CA of the thyroid (malignant)

123

Congo Red

Shows amyloid deposition in plaques & vascular walls

124

Meningiomas & Progesterone

Some meningiomas have Progesterone receptors = rapid growth in pregnancy can occur

125

Tuberous Sclerosis Triad

Seizures; Mental retardation; Leukoderma (congenital facial white spots or macules):
angiofibromas

126

Cowdry A Inclusions

Seen w/ Herpes Simplex Encephalitis – in oligodendroglia

Intranuclear

127

Devic’s Syndrome

“Neuromyelitis Optica”
355. A variant of multiple sclerosis: rapid demyelination of the optic nerve & spinal cord w/ paraplegia

128

c-erb B2

Breast Cancer association

129

Foster-Kennedy Syndrome

A tumor causing blindness & loss of smell w/ papilloedema

130

Hoffman’s Sign

Flicking of the middle finger’s nail

131

Red Nucleus Destruction

Intention tremors of the arm

132

Ventral Spinocerebellar tr.

Unconscious proprioception of lower extremities

133

Dorsal Spinocerebellar tr.

Unconscious prorpioception & fine motor movements

134

Cuneocerebellar tr.

Unconscious proprioception & fine motor movements of upper extremities

135

Dorsal Column

Conscious proprioception of the body

136

Lateral Spinothalamic tr.

Pain & Temperature sensation

137

Ventral Spinothalamic tr.

Light touch perception

138

SVA

Taste & Smell

139

GSE

Muscles of the eye & of the tongue

140

SSA

Vision; Hearing; Equilibrium

141

GVA

Sensation of tongue; soft palate. Carotid Body & Sinus innervation

142

GVE

Edinger Westphal = parasympathetic eye innervation
371. Gland innervation = secretions
Page 9
372. Viscera

143

GSA

Pain & temperature of face
374. Sensation of external ear

144

SVE

Innervation of muscles of masticaiton, facial expressions, larynx & pharynx

145

LMN Lesion

Werndig Hoffman (progressive infantile muscular atrophy)
377. Poliomyelitis

146

Sensory Pathway Lesion

Subacute Combined Degeneration = Friedrich’s Ataxia = B12 deficiency
379. Tabes Dorsalis (Neurosyphilis)

147

Both UMN & LMN Lesion

ALS = Lou Gherig’s Disease

148

Both Sensory & Motor Lesion

Brown Sequard
382. Anterior Spinal artery Occlusion

149

Suprachiasmatic Nucleus

Controls circadian rhythm

150

Ventromedial Nucleus

Satiety center. Savage behavior & obesity when lesioned

151

Lateral Nucleus

Induces eating. Starvation when lesioned

152

Arcuate Nucleus

Releases PIF (dopa-ergic neurons)

153

Mamillary Body

Can have hemorrhages as seen in Wernicke’s Encephalopathy

154

Acanthocytes

RBSc w/ spiny projections. Seen in Abetalipoproteinemia.