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Flashcards in gold usmle: Pathology Deck (234):
1

Mobitz I

Usually due to inferior MI. Rarely goes into 3rd degree block.
118. Txt w/ Atropine or Isoproterenol.

2

Mobitz II

BBB association. Often goes to 3rd degree AV block. Usually due to anterior MI.

3

P wave

Atrial depol.

4

a wave

LA contraction

5

T wave

Vetricular repol.

6

Wavy fibers

Eosinophilic bands of necrotic myocytes. Early sign of MI.

7

Janeway’s lesions

Acute bacterial endocarditis.
125. Nontender, erythematous lesions of palms & soles.

8

Osler’s nodes

Subacute bacterial endocarditis.
127. Tender lesions of fingers & toes.

9

Thiamine defcy

Wet Beri Beri heart. Dilated (congested) cardiomyopathy due to chronic alcohol consumption
129. Dyr Beri Beri = peripheral neuropathy
130. Wernicke-Korsakoff = ataxia; confusion; confabulation; memory loss

10

Fibrinous Pericarditis

Associated w/ MI: Dressler’s

11

Serous Pericarditis

Associated w/ nonbacterial; viral (Coxsackie) infection; immunologic reaction.

12

Friction Rub

Pericarditis association

13

Hemorrhagic Pericarditis

Associated w/ TB or neoplasm

14

Restrictive Cardiomyopathy

Aka infiltrative cardiomyopathy that stiffens the heart
136. Due to amyloidosis in the elderly
137. Due to , also see schaumann & asteroid bodies in young (

15

PML’s infectious agent

JC Virus (Papovavirus = dsDNA, naked icosahedral capsid)

16

Edema

↑Pc (more seeps out)
140. ↓πc (less reabsorbed)
141. ↑ permeability
142. Block lymphatic drainage

17

Adult Polycystic Kidney
Disease

Commonly see liver cysts & Berry aneurysms along w/ kidney cysts. Hematuria & HTN also present.
144. 3 cysts in ea. Kidney w/ + family history confirms diagnosis

18

Malignant HTN & Kidneys

Petehial hemorrhages are seen on kidney surfaces = Flea-Bitten surface = young black men

19

Nephritic signs

Hematuria; RBC casts; HTN

20

Nephrotic signs

Proteinuria; Hypoalbuminemia; Edema

21

Podocyte Effacement seen
w/

Minimal Change (Lipoid nephrosis) disease

22

ASO seen in

Acute post-streptococcal GN (due to βHGASrtep)
150. Anti streptolysin O

23

Crescentic GN

Rapidly progressive GN – nephritic syndrome
152. Associated w/ multi system disease or post-strep/post infectious glomerular nephritis

24

Hereditary Nephritis

Alport’s syndrome. X linked
154. Renal disease w/ deafness & ocualr abnormalities

25

Membranoproliferative GN

Can be secondary to complement deficiency; chronic infections; CLL
156. See tram tracking

26

TypeI Membrano
Proliferative GN deposits

C3 & IgG deposits

27

TypeII Membrano
Proliferative GN deposits

Only C3 deposits
159. Aka Dense deposit disease

28

Focal segmental
glomerulosclerosis deposits

IgM & C3 deposits

29

Cold agglutinins

Seen in atypical pneumonia
Mycoplasma pneumoniae
162. It is IgM Ab with specificity for I Ag on adult RBCs

30

Scrofula

TB in the lymph nodes

31

Aspirin-Asthma Triad

Nasal polyps –
Rhinitis
– bronchoconstriction

32

Ferruginous bodies

Hemosiderin (pigment w/ Fe3-) covered macrophages that have been pahgocytised

33

Pancoast’s tumor causes

Ulnar nerve pain & Horner’s syndrome

34

Fatty degeneration

Made up primarily of triglycerides
168. Most commonly due to alcoholism which commonly leads to hepatic cirrhosis
169. Associated w/ CCl4
-

35

Cloudy swelling

Failure of cellular Na pump
171. Seen in Fatty degeneration of the liver and in Hydropic (Vacuolar) degeneration of the liver

36

Hydropic degeneration

Severe form of cloudy swelling
173. Seen with hypokalemia induced by vomitting/diarrhea

37

Liquefaction necrosis

Rapid enzymatic break down of lipids
175. Seen commonly in Brain & Spinal cord (CNS) injuries
176. Seen in suppurative infections = pus formation

38

Coagulation necrosis

Result of sudden ischemia
178. Seen in organs w/ end arteries limited collateral circulation) = heart, lung, kidney, spleen

39

Caseation necrosis

Combination of both coagulation & liquefaction necrosis
180. Seen w/ M. tuberculosis & Histoplasma capsulatum infection

40

Fibrinoid necrosis

Seen in the walls of small arteries
182. Associated w/ malignant hypertension, polyarteritis nodosa, immune mediated vasculitis

41

Fat necrosis

Result of lipase actions liberated from pancreatic enzymes
184. Seen w/ Acute pancreatitis = saponification results

42

Hemoptysis

Blood in sputum

43

Pulmonary embolism

Most commonly thrombus from lower extremity vein

44

Phlebothrombosis

From a vein of lower extremities, of a pregnant uterus, in Congestive heart failure, bed ridden pt,
188. As a complicaiton in a pt w/ Pancreatic CA due to ↑d blood coagulability

45

Saddle embolus

Embolus lodged in bifurcation of pulmonary trunks
190. ↑↑ RV strain = RV & RA dilate = Acute cor Pulmonale

46

Paradoxical embolism

Right to Left shunt allows a venous embolism to enter arterial circulation
192. Patent ovale foramen or Atrial septal defect

47

Tuberculoid granuloma

Collection of macrophages w/o caseation
194. Seen w/ Sarcoidosis (non-caseating); Syphilis; Brucellosis and Leprotic infections

48

Cellulitis

Spreading infection due to streptococcus

49

PSA

Prostate Specific Antigen = elevated in prostatic CA

50

↑↑5-HT

In cases of metastatic carcinoid, txt w/ Methysergide (5HT antagonist)

51

↑ αFeto Protein

Hepatocarcinoma
199. Neural tube defects

52

CEA

Carcinoembryonic Antigen = elevated in Colon CA

53

Chromosome 13

Retinoblastoma

54

Chromosome 11p

Wilms tumor of the kidney

55

Vinyl Chloride

Associated w/ Angiosarcoma of the liver

56

Agent Orange

Contains dioxin
205. Implicated as a cause of Hodgkin;s disease, non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma & soft tissue sarcomas

57

Parasites & CA

Schistosoma haematobium = Urinary bladder CA
207. S. mansoni = Colon CA
208. Aspergillus flavus = potent hepatocarcinogen

58

Ochronosis

Alkaptonuria
210. Error in tyrosine metabolism due to Homogentisic acid (oxidizes tyrosine)
211. Involving intervertebral disks = Ankylosing Spondilitis = Poker spine
212. See dark urine; dark coloration of sclera, tendons, cartilage

59

Lead poisoning

Acid fast inclusion bodies
214. ↑ urinary coproprophyrin
215. Anemia: microcytic/ hypochromic
216. Stippling of the basophils
217. Gingival line & lead line in bones: x-ray
218. Mental retardation

60

Heroin OD, clinically

Massive pulmonary edema w/ frothy fluid from the nostrils

61

Fetal alcohol syndrome

Small head, small eyes, funnel chest, ASD, mental deficiency, and hirsutism

62

Atypical mycobacterium

M. kanasasii & M. avium intracellulare

63

Cold abscesses

Liquefied TB lesions similar to pyogenic abscesses but lacking acute inflammation

64

Actinomyces isrealli

Farmers infection
224. Lumpy jaw (from chewing grain) & PID (IUD), but most common is due to saprophyticus

65

Congenital Syphilis

Saddle nose, Saber shin, Hutchinson’s teeth, nerve deafness, interstitial keratitis

66

Warthin-Finkeledy cells

Reticuloendothelial giant cells on tonsils, lymph nodes, spleen

67

Diphyllobothrium latum

Tapeworm infection causing megaloblastic anemia by consuming large amount of vit B12 in the host

68

Subacute Bacterial
Endocarditis

α Hemolytic Streptococci (S. viridans) = usually in pt w/ pre-existing heart problem

69

Acute Bacterial Endocarditis

Staph aureus, β Hemolytic Streptococci, E. coli
231. Common among drug addicts & diabetics

70

Mitral Insufficiency

Ruptured papillary muscle

71

Left Anterior Descending
branch

Branch of the Left Coronary artery
234. Highest frequency of thrombotic occlusion
235. MI = anterior wall of the LV, especially in apical part of interventricular septum

72

Left Circumflex branch

Branch of the Left Coronary artery
237. Occlusion = MI of posterior/lateral wall of the LV

73

Dissecting Aneurysm

False aneurysm: it is splitting of the media of the aorta
239. Usually accompanied w/ long history of severe hypertension, also seen w/ familial hyperlipidemia,
atherosclerotic disease, Marfan’s Collagen disease
240. Zones of medial necrosis +/- slitlike cysts = Medial Cystic Necrosis of Erdheim

74

Cor Pulmonale

Right ventricular strain, associated w/ right ventricular hypertrophy

75

Acute Cor Pulmonale

Sudden right ventricular strain due to a massive pulmonary embolism

76

Bronchopneumonia

Lobular (rather than lobar)
244. Due to Staph aureus; Pseudomonas aeruginosa; Klebsiella; E. coli
245. Abscess formation is common

77

Lobar pneumonia

Due to Strep. Pneumoniae infection (5% due to Klebsiella)
247. Red Hepatization: days 1-3 of the pneumonia
248. Gray Hepatization: days 3-8 of untreated pneumonia
249. Complicaitons: pleural effusion; atelectasia; fibrinous pleuritis; empyema; fibrinous pericarditis; otitis
media

78

Bronchiectasis

Permanent dilatation of the bronchi – predisposed by chronic sinusitis and post nasal drip
251. Supparation associated
252. Lower lobe > than upper lobe involvement

79

Panlobular Emphysema

α1 – antitrypsin deficiency, causing elastase ↑ = ↑ compliance in the lung

80

Bulla

Associated w/ Emphysema = “Bleb” = outpouching - If it ruptures causes Pneumothorax

81

Farmer’s Lung

Due to Micropolyspora faeni (thermophilic actinomycetes)

82

Bagassosis

Due to M. vulgaris (actinomycetes)
258. Inhalation of sugar cane dust

83

Silo-Filler’s Lung

Due to Nitrogen dioxide from nitrates in corn

84

G6PDH Deficiency

Sex-linked chronic hemolytic anemia w/o challenge or after eating fava beans
261. Heinz Bodies appear in RBCs

85

HbF ↑↑

Sickle Cell Anemia

86

Multiple Myeloma

Lytic lesions of flat bones (“salt & pepper lesions”) = vertebrae, ribs, skull; Hypercalcemia; Bence-Jones
protein casts

87

Hodgkin’s Disease

Malignant neoplasm of the lymph nodes causing pruritis; fever = looks like an acute infection
265. Reed Sternberg cells

88

Polyarteritis Nodosa

Immune complex disease of Ag-Ab complexes on blood vessel wall
267. Half of the immune complexes have Hepatitis B Ag
268. Can see fever; abd.pain; ↓ wt; HTN; muscle aches

89

Sprue

Celiac disease due to a gluten-induced enteropathy = small intestine villi are blunted
270. High titers of anti-gliadin Abs & ↑ IgA levels

90

Regional Enteritis

Crohn’s Disease
272. Association w/ Arthritis; Uveitis; Erythema Nodosum

91

Whipple’s Disease

Intestinal Lipodystrophy = malabsorption syndrome

92

Kulchitsky cells

Neural cest cells from which carcinoids arise = of the Bronchi; GIT; Pancreas

93

Ulcerative Colitis

Inflammatory disease of the colon w/ ↑ colon CA incidence
276. Crypt abscess in the crypts of Lieberkuhn
277. Pseudopolyps when ulcers are deep
278. Not transmural involvement

94

Vaginal Adenosis

Women exposed to DES (Diethylstilbesterol) in utero before the 18th week of pregnancy
280. Some develop clear cell adenocarcinoma of the vagina & cervix

95

Hofbauer Cells

Lipid laden macrophages seen in villi of Erythroblastosis Fetalis

96

Retinopathy of Prematurity

Retrolental Fibroplasia = cause of bindness in premies due to high O2 concentrations

97

IgA deficiency

Pt has recurrent infections & diarrhea w/ ↑ respiratory tract allergy & autoimmune diseases
285. If given blood w/ IgA = develop severe, fatal anaphylaxis reaction

98

Priamry Sjorgen’s

Dry eyes & dry mouth, arthritis. ↑ risk for B cell lymphoma. HLA-DR3 frequent. Autoimmune disease.

99

Secondary Sjorgen’s

Rheumatoid arthritis, SLE, or systemic sclerosis association
288. RA association shows HLA-DR4

100

LDH1 & LDH2

Myocardium. LDH1 higher than LDH2 = Myocardial Infarction

101

LDH4 & LDH5

Liver cells

102

Keratomalacia

Severe Vit A deficiency. See Bitot’s spots in the eyes = gray plaques = thickened, keratinized ET

103

Metabisfite Test

Suspending RBCs in a low O2 content solution
294. Can detect Hemoglobin S, which sickles in low O2

104

Microangiopathic Hemolytic
Anemia

Can be due to Hemolyitc Uremic Syndrome & Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura (TTP)
296. See Helmet cells

105

Wright’s stain

Stain for Burkitt’s lymphoma

106

Mononucleosis

Due to EBV infeciton
299. If Mono is treated w/ Ampicillin, thinking that it is a strep pharyngitis, a rash will occur.

107

T(8;14)

Burkitt’s lymphoma = c-myc oncogene overexpression

108

T(9;22)

CML = c-abl/bcr gene formation = Philadelphia translocation

109

Langerhan Cell Histiocytosis

Letter Siwe syndrome; Hand Schuller Christian Disease; Eosinophilic Granuloma
303. Birbeck granules are present = tennis racket shape

110

Myeloid Metaplasia

Alkaline phosphatase ↑/normal compare to CML = low to absent
305. Anemia; splenomegaly; platelets > 1 million = extensive extra-medullary hematopoiesis

111

Multiple Myeloma

Weakness; wt. loss; recurrent infection; proteinuria; anemia; ↑ proliferation of plasma cells in BM =
plasma cell dx
307. Serum M protein spike – most often of IgG or IgA
308. Hypercalcemia (↑ bone destruction)

112

T(14;18)

NH Lymphoma = bcl2 proto-oncogene overexpression seen w/ Small Cleaved Cell (Follicualr) Lymphoma

113

Focal Segmental GN exs

IgA Focal GN = Berger’s disease; SLE; PAN; Schonlein-Henoch purpura (anaphylactoid purpura)

114

Nephrotic Syndrome exs

Focal (Segmental) GN; Membranous GN; Lipoid (Minimal Change) GN; Membranoproliferative GN; Hep B;
Syphilis; Penicillamine

115

Schistosoma Haematobium

Infection is assocaited w/ Squamous cell CA of the Bladder (most common Bladder CA is transitional
cell type)
313. Associated w/ portal HTN due to intrahepatic obstruction

116

Penicillin Resistant PID

PID is usually due to N. Gonorrhoeae, but if unresponsive to penicillin think of Bacteroides species

117

Duret Hemorrhages

We learned associated with transtentorial hemorrhages, they say:
Severe ↑ in ICP w/ downward diplacement of cerebellar tonsils into Foramen Magnum causing a
compression on the brainstem w/ hemorrhaging into the pons & midbrain
316. Nearly always associated w/ death due to damage to the vital centers in these areas

118

Hypertensive Hemorrhage

Predilection for lenticulostriate arteries = putamen & internal capsule hemorrhages

119

Cerebral Embolism from

MI w/ Mural Thrombi; Atrial Fib Thrombi = Marantic thrombi; L-sided Bacterial Endocarditis;
Paradoxical Embolism of septal defect

120

Neurosyphilis

Tabes Dorsalis = ↓ joint position sensation, ↓ pain sensation, ataxia, Argyl Robertson pupils
320. Syphilitic meningitis
321. Paretic neurosyphilis

121

5p-

Cri di Chat: mental retardation; small head; wide set eyes; low set ears; cat-like cry

122

Trisomy 13

Patau’s: small head & eyes; cleft lip & palate; many fingers

123

Acute Cold Agglutinaiton

Abs to I blood group Ag. Mediated by IgM Abs
325. Complication of EBV or Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections

124

Chronic Cold Agglutinaiton

Associated w/lymphoid neoplasms. See agglutination & hemolysis in tissue exposed to cold. IgM Abs

125

RBC Osmotic Fragility

Hereditary Spherocytosis

126

Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphomas

Small Lymphocytic: low grade B cell lymphoma of the elderly. Related to CLL.
329. Small Cleaved cell (Follicualr): low grade B cell lymphoma of the elderly. T(14;18) bcl-2 oncogene
330. Large Cell
331. Lymphoblastic: high grade T cell lymphoma of kids progressing to T-ALL
332. Small Non Cleaved = Burkitt’s: high grade B cell lymphoma. EBV infection. Starry sky histo appearance.
T(8;14) c-myc proto-oncogene. Related to B-ALL

127

Singer’s Nodules

Benign laryngeal polyps associated w/ smoking & overuse of the voice

128

Paraseptal emphysema

Associated w/ blebs (large subpleural bullae) that can rupture and cause pneumothorax

129

Superior Vena Cava Syndrome

Obstructed due to bronchogenic carcinoma. Causing swollen face & cyanosis.

130

Betel nuts

Associated to oral cancer.

131

Fundal (Type A) Gastritis

Antibodies to parietal cells; pernicious anemia; autoimmune diseases

132

Antral (Type B) Gastritis

338. Associated w/ Helicobacter (Campylobacter) pylori infection. 90% of duodenal ulcer

133

Primary Biliary Cirrhosis

Autoimmune origin; middle aged women; anti-mitochondrial Abs
340. Jaundice; itching; hypercholesterolemia (can see cutaneous xanthomas)

134

Acute Pancreatitis

↑ pancreatic enzymes = fat necrosis; sapponification = hypocalcemia; ↑ serum amylase
342. Severe epigastric ab pain; prostration; radiation to the back

135

Radiating Back Pain

Chronic pancreatitis

136

Complete Hydatidiform Mole

No embryo. Paternal derivation only. 46XX

137

Partial Hydatidiform Mole

Embryo. 2 or more sprems fertilized 1 ovum: triploidy/tetraploidy occurs

138

Cold Nodules

Hypoplastic Goiter nodules that do not take up radio active iodine. [Opposite: hot & do take up iodine]

139

Acidophils

Mammotrophs = Prolactin
348. Somatotrophs = GH

140

Basophils

Thyrotrophs = TSH
350. Gonadotrophs = LH
351. Corticotrophs = ACTH & FSH

141

Lacunar Strokes

Small/focal aa occlusions. Purely motor or sensory.
353. Sensory: lesion of thalamus
354. Motor: lesion of internal capsule

142

CSF of Bacterial Meningitis

↓ Glucose; ↑ Protein; ↑ Neutrophils; ↑ Pressure

143

CSF of Viral Meningitis

Normal Glucose; +/-↑ Protein; ↑ Lymphocytes

144

Marble Bone Disease

Osteoporosis: Albers-Schonberd Disease = inspite of ↑d bone density, many fractures = ↓ osteoclasts

145

C5a

Involved in Chemotaxis (for Neutrophils)

146

C3b

Involved in Opsonization (& IgG)

147

Anaphylotoxins

C3a & C5a (mediate Histamine release from Basophils & Mast cells)

148

Vasoactive Mediators

Vasoconstriction: TxA2; LTC4; LTD4; LTE4; PAF
362. Vasodilation: PGI2; PGD2; PGE2; PGF2α; Bradykinin; PAF
363. ↑d Vascular Permeability: Hist.; 5HT; PGD2; PGE2; PGF2α; LTC4; LTD4; LTE4; Bradykinin; PAF

149

Platelet Aggregation

ADP; Thrombin; TxA2; collagen; Epinephrine; PAF

150

Platelet Antagonist

Prostacyclin (PGI2)

151

Intrinsic Pathway

F XII (Hagman): APTT

152

Extrinsic Pathway

F VII: PT

153

Lines of Zahn

Aterial thrombi = pale red colored (dark red is venous thrombi)

154

Currant Jelly appearance

Post mortem clots

155

Emigration: Chemotaxis

Margination
371. Pavementing
372. Adhesion
373. Chemotaxis
374. Phagocytosis
375. Intracellular microbial killing

156

Transudate

Specific gravity

157

Exudate

Specific gravity > 1.020 – high protein

158

Hurler’s

Lysosomal storage disease α L Iduronidase – Heparan/Dermatan Sulfate accumulation

159

Galactosemia

Deficiency of Galactose 1 Phosphate Uridyl Transferase. ↑ Galactose 1 Phosphate

160

Phenylketonuria

Deficiency: Phenylalanine Hydroxylase. ↑ Phenyalanine & degradation products
381. Mousy body odor

161

Autosomal Dominant Diseases

Adult Poly Cystic Kidney Disease
383. Familial Hypercholestrolemia Disease
384. Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telengectasia (Osler-Weber-Rendu)
385. Hereditary Spherocytosis
386. Huntington’s Disease (chromosome 4p)
387. Marfan’s Syndrome
388. Neurofibromatosis (von Recklinghausen’s)
389. Tuberous Sclerosis
390. Von Hippel Lindau Disease

162

Autosomal Recessive
Diseases

Tay-Sachs
392. Gaucher’s
Page 25
393. Niemann-Pick
394. Hurler’s
395. Von Gierke’s
396. Pompe’s
397. Cori’s
398. McArdle’s
399. Galactosemia
400. PKU
401. Alcaptonuria

163

X Linked Recessive Diseases

Hunter’s Syndrome (L-Iduronosulfate Sulfatase deficincy, ↑ Heparan/Dermatan Sulfate)
403. Fabry’s Disease (α Galactosidase A deficiency, ↑ Ceremide Trihexoside)
404. Classic Hemophilia A (Factor VIII deficiency, F8 Gene on X chromosome is bad, ↑ Ceremide Trihexoside)
405. Lisch-Nyhan Syndrome (HGPRT deficiency, ↑ Uric acid)
406. G6Phosphatase deficiency (G6PDH deficiency, ↑ Ceremide trihexoside)
407. Duchenne’s Muscular Dystrophy (Dystrophin deficinecy, ↑ Ceremide Trihexoside)

164

Hypersensitivity Reactions
“ACID”

Type I (Anaphylactic): IgE mediated. Exs: Hay Fever; Allergic asthma; Hives
409. Type II (Cytotoxic): Warm Ab autoimmune hemolytic anemia; hemolytic transfusion reactions;
Erythroblastosis Fetalis; Grave’s Disease; Goodpastures
410. Type III (Immune Complex): Insoluble complement bound aggregates of Ag-Ab complexes. Exs: Serum
sickness; Arthus Reaction; Polyarteritis Nodosa; SLE; Immune Complex Mediated Glomerular Disease
411. Type IV (Delayed = Cell mediated immunity): Delayed hypersensitivity. Involves memory cells. Exs:
Tuberculin reaction; Contact dermatitis; Tumor cell killing; Virally infected cell killing

165

Transplant Rejections

Hyperacute Rejection = occurs w/in minutes of transplant. Ab mediated.
413. Acute Rejection = occurs w/in days to months of transplant. Lymphocytes & macrophages. Only
rejection type that can be treated w/ therapy.
414. Chronic Rejection = occurs months to years of transplant. Ab mediates vascular damage.

166

Blood Metastasis

Sarcoma, exception – renal cell CA: early venous invasion

167

Lymph Metastasis

Carcinoma, exception – renal cell CA: early venous invasion

168

Aflatoxin

Seen w/ Aspergillus. ↑ risk for Hepatocellular CA

169

Cleft Lip

Incomplete fusion of maxillary prominence w/ median nasal prominence

170

Cleft Palate

Incomplete fusion of lateral palatine process w/ each other & median nasal prominence & medial
palatine prominence

171

Craniopharyngioma

Pituitary tumor - usually calcified

172

Lateral Geniculate Nucleus

Inolved in Vision relay

173

Medial Geniculate Body

Involved in Hearing relay

174

Lung Development

Glandular: 5-17 fetal weeks
Canalicular 13-25 fetal weeks
Terminal Sac 24 weeks to birth
Alveolar period birth-8yoa

175

Heart’s 1st Beat

21-22 days

176

Foregut

Mouth -> Common Bile Duct - supplied by Celiac Artery

177

Midgut

Duodenum, just below Common Bile Duct ! Splenic flexure of the Colon supplied by Superior Mesenteric
artery

178

Hindgut

Splenic Flexure ! Butt crack ! supplied by Inferior Mesenteric Artery

179

Hypnagogic Hallucinaitons

Narcolepsy

180

Type I Error

α: “Convicting the innocent” – accepting experimental hypothesis/rejecting null hypothesis

181

Subdural Hematoma

Ruptured cerebral bridging veins

182

Epidural Hematoma

Ruptured middle meningeal artery “intervals of lucidness”, 2ry to Temporal bone fracture

183

Type II Error

β: “Setting the guilty free” – fail to reject the null hypotesis when it was false

184

Power

1 - β

185

Sensitivity

TP/TP + FN

186

Specificity

TN/TN + FP

187

Positive Predictive Value

TP/TP + FP

188

Negative Predictive Value

TN/TN + FN

189

Odds Ratio

ad/bc

190

d-Dimers

DIC

191

Delusion

Disorder of thought content

192

Loose Association

Skip from topic to topic

193

5 Stages of Death

Denial – Anger – Bargaining – Depression – Acceptance

194

1st Branchial Arch

Meckel’s cartillage – gives rise to incus/malleus bones of ear

195

2nd Branchial Arch

Reichert’s cartillage – gives rise to stapes bone of ear

196

Median nerve lesion

No pronation

197

Radial nerve lesion

Wrist drop – seen w/ humerus fracture

198

Common peroneal lesion

Foot drop. No dorsiflexion or eversion of the foot

199

Diract inguinal hernia

Goes through superficial inguinal ring.
Medial to inferior epigastric artery
Seen in older men

200

Indirect inguinal hernia

Goes through deep & superficial inguinal ring
Lateral to inferior epigastric artery
Seen in young boys – processus vaginalis did not close

201

@ Diaphragm T8, T10, T12

T8 = Inferior vena cava
T10 = Esophagus/ Vagus
T12 = Aorta/ Thoracic duct/ Azygous vein

202

Hemiballismus

Wild flailing of 1 arm. Lesion of the sub thalamic nucleus

203

O Linked Oligosaccharide

In the Golgi

204

N Linked Oligosaccharide

In the RER

205

MLF Syndrome

Internuclear Ophthalmoplegia: medial rectus palsy on lateral gaze; Nystagmus on abducting eye.
Seen w/ MS

206

ADA Deficiency

SCID

207

Raphe Nucleus

Initiation of sleep via 5HT predominance

208

β waves

Alert; Awake; Active mind – also seen in REM, therefore we say “paradoxical sleep”

209

Irreversible Glycolysis
Enzymes

Hexokinase
PhosphoFructo Kinase = Rate Limiting Step
Pyruvate Kinase
Pyruvate Dehydrogenase

210

Irreversible Gluconeogenesis
Enzymes

PyruvateCarboxy Kinase
PEPCarboxyKinase
Fructose 1,6 BiPhosphatase
Glucose 6 Phosphatase
**muscle dose not take part in Gluconeogenesis, only takes place in the liver, kidney & GI epithelium

211

Pellagra

Diarrhea, Dermatitis, Dementia
Niacin Deficiency (Vit B3 deficiency)
Hartnup’s Disease
Malignant Carcinoid Syndrome
INH use

212

TLCFN

Needed as co-factor for Pyruvate DH complex & α Ketoglutarate DH complex

213

LCAT or PCAT

Esterification of cholesterol: lecithin cholesterol acetyltransferase
Lecithin = Phosphatidylcholine, therefore phosphotidylcholine acetyltransferase

214

HMGCoA Reductase

Rate limiting step in cholesterol synthesis
Changes HMGCoA ! Mevalonate
(-) by Lovastatin

215

Ketogenic amino acids

Leucine & Lysine

216

Glucogenic amino acids

Methionine, Threonine, Valine, Arginine, Histadine

217

Keto & Gluco amino acids

Phenylalanine, Trytophan, Isoleucine

218

Carnitine Shuttle

Feeds FA into the mitochondria for their consumption

219

Cori Cycle

Keeps muscles working anaerobically.
Transfers lactate to the liver to make glucose which is sent back into the muscles for energy use

220

(-) Na+ Pump (ATPase)

Ouabain [(-) K+ pump]
Vanadate [(-) phosphorylation]
Digoxin [↑ heart contractility]

221

TCA Cycle Products

Citric Acid Is Krebs Starting Substrate For Mitochondrial Oxidation”
Citrate ! Aconitate ! Isocitrate ! α Ketoglutarate ! Succinyl ! Succinate ! Fumarate ! Malate !OAA

222

Cones

Color vision. Contain Iodopsin = Red-Blue-Green specific pigment. For acuity.

223

Rods

Contain Rhodopsin pigment. High sensitivity. Concentrated in the fovea. Night vision.

224

Gastrula

Seen @ 3rd week: Ecto, Meso & Endo

225

Epiblast

@ 2nd week: forms the primitive streak, from which Meso & Endo come from. Directly gives rise to Ecto.

226

Sydenham’s Chorea

Post streptococcal infection. Necrotizing arteritis of the caudate, putamen, thalamus

227

(+) Frei Test

Chlamydia trachomatis types L1, L2, L3 = Lymphogranuloma venereum

228

Sabouraud’s Agar

Culture for all Fungi ie…Culture Cryptococcus neofromans which is found in pigeon droppings

229

FMR1 Gene Defect

Fragile X Syndrome: macro-orchidism; long face; large jaw; large everted ears; autism, mental retardation

230

Barr Body

Barr Body

231

Aortic Insufficiency Signs

Traube Sign = Pistol shot sound over the femoral vessels
Corrigan pulse = water hammer pulse over coratid artery = aortic regurgitation

232

Scleroderma :”CREST”

Calcinosis; Raynauds; Esophageal; Sclerodactyl; Telangiectasis

233

Cretinism

Sporadic: bad T4 phosphorylation or developmental failure of thyroid formation
Endemic: no Iodine in diet: protruding belly & belly button

234

Hemochromatosis Triad

Micronodular pigment cirrhosis; Bronze Diabetes; Skin pigmentation = due to ↑ Fe3+ deposition