Flashcards in Group Presentations for Exam 3 Deck (41):
In Matsumoto et al., Task 1 required the subjects to let go of a bar in response to a green dot. A correct response for a high incentive cue yielded a liquid reward. Which of the following statements is FALSE regarding the results of Task 1?
a) Area TE is involved in general categorization and is necessary for making discriminations that use basic comparisons.
b) High incentive cues resulted in lower error rates than low incentive cues for all categorization sets.
c) The monkey’s error rates were mildly affected post-lesion.
d) Implicit categorical learning was exhibited by the control monkeys.
In Matsumoto et al., when the monkeys performed the explicit categorization task (Task 2), which of the following results were true?
a) Most of the monkeys took over 10 sessions to figure out the right procedure
b) The monkeys learned that releasing the bar when the light was green for the cat stimuli was the best choice
c) The monkeys’ percent correct mildly declined post-lesion..
d) Some of the TE monkeys never figured out the right procedure.
In Matsumoto et al., the TE ablations in Task 3 _______ the visual acuity in monkeys, suggesting that the impairments were due to their performance in ____________________.
a. Did not impact; visual acuity
b. Did not impact; categorization and discrimination learning tasks
c. Did impact; visual acuity
d. Did impact; categorization and discrimination learning tasks
In Matsumoto et al., area TE was found NOT to be wholly responsible for categorization. What other brain areas were considered to be possible candidates for future studies?
a. Perirhinal cortex
b. Area TEO
d. All of the above
The study by Matsumoto et al. consisted of 4 tasks that Area TE lesioned monkeys performed. Task 4 required the subjects to learn to associate an object or pattern with a food reward. Matsumoto et al. included this study to confirm that the effect their lesions matched past reports of impaired pattern discrimination.
The _____ stream was shown to associate more with animate/inanimate categorization while the _____ stream dealt more with action/non-action categorization.
A. lateral; dorsal
B. lateral; ventral
C. dorsal; ventral
D. ventral; dorsal
Visual information transitions from shape to categorical representation as you move along the _______ - _______ axis.
A. Rostral; Caudal
B. Ventral; Dorsal
C. Posterior; Anterior
D. Medial; Lateral
There was a ____ correlation between perceived shape index and category similarity.
Visual information is processed in at least 2 pathways, including:
A. Ventral stream/Lateral stream
B. Ventral stream/Dorsal stream
C. Cranial stream/ Lateral stream
D. Medial stream/Dorsal stream
Shape sensitive brain regions were observed in two clusters. Cluster I represented the extrastriate system. True/False?
The PD rat model from Hsieh et al. 2015, showed reduced rTMS-induced motor plasticity. True/False?
Injecting 6-OHDA into the substantia nigra mimicked Parkinson's Disease, because 6-OHDA ________ dopaminergic neurons.
iTBS ______ the size of MEPs for 30 min or more. In the same conditions cTBS ______ the size of MEPs for at least 30 min.
A. Decreased, decreased
B. Increased, increased
C. Increased, decreased
D. Decreased, increased
___________ are known to be crucial for rTMS to produce motor plasticity.
A. NMDA receptors
B. AMPA receptors
C. G-Protein receptors
D. Ion Channels
iTBS has some kind of facilitatory effect on MEPs in 1-wk PD rats, but not in 4-wk PD rats. True/False
Figure 1: At 2 weeks, there is no difference in the percentage or frequency of the firing neurons in wild-type mice versus ATXN1 mice. At 5 weeks, the number of firing neuron in SCA1 mice decreases, but the firing frequency of these neurons remains the same as those in wild-type mice. What is observed at 15 weeks?
a. The number of firing neurons and firing frequency in ATXN1 mice resemble that seen at 2 weeks
b. The number of firing neurons in ATXN1 mice continues to decrease.
c. The firing frequency in ATXN1 mice increases and surpasses that of the wild-type mice
d. The number of firing neurons in ATXN1 mice is restored, but the firing frequency is lowered.
Figure 2:Reduction in what channels is associated with the depolarized membrane potential in ATXN1 neurons:
A) BK Channels
B) Subthreshold activated potassium channels
C) Voltage-gated calcium channels
D) A and B
Figure 3: In transgenic AXTN1 mice, the number of BK channels _____, and the number of GIRK1 channels _____.
A) Increased, decreased
B) Decreased, decreased
C) Increased, increased
D) Decreased, increased
Figure 7: Restoring BK channel expression in ATXN1(82Q) mice improves motor dysfunction and partially restores dendritic morphology. True/false?
Figure 8: Perfusion of FFA into the neuron caused:
A) preservation of molecular layer thickness and dendritic arbor
B) no change in the neuron
C) prolonged opening of Na channels
D) A & C
Mice treated with Erythropoietin (EPO) maintained increased numbers of neurons in the hippocampus regardless of whether or not they were cognitively active in the months following EPO treatment. True/False
Erythropoietin (EPO) contributes to hippocampal neurogenesis in which of the following ways?
A. Accelerated proliferation
B. Accelerated differentiation
C. Increased apoptosis
D. Decreased apoptosis
The increased neurogenesis with the administration of Erythropoietin (EPO) is independent of its hematopoietic properties. True/false
In Erythropoietin (EPO)-treated mice, the number of oligodendrocytes expressing the Olig1 transcription factor decreased, but expression of myelin proteins significantly increased. True/false
In chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), the insoluble form of phosphorylated tau is of low molecular weight. True/false
What type of brain samples were compared in this experiment in respect to phosphorylated tau deposits?
I. Patients diagnosed with chronic traumatic encephalopathy
II. Patients diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease
III. Patients diagnosed with temporal lope epilepsy
IV. Patients diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease
A. I, II and III
B. I and III
D. II and III
What conclusions about different levels of phosphorylated tau in chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) vs Control brains were researchers able to make based on western blot and immunocytochemical analysis.
A. CTE brain had more pt
B. CTE brain had less Pt
C. no significant difference
D. CTE brains were too damaged to study
Tau proteins function to stabilize which neuronal structure?
D.none of the above
From the Ehlen and colleagues article (2015), after sleep deprivation, Angelman syndrome model mouse showed a significant increase in NREM sleep, NREM relative delta power, and I2-6. True/false
From the Ehlen and colleagues article (2015), the Ube3a protein was expressed in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of
a. knockdown mice
b. wild type mice
c. both knockdown and wild type mice
d. neither knockdown nor wild type mice
From the Ehlen and colleagues article (2015), Angelman Syndrome is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder caused by the loss of expression of the
a. Maternal copy of the Melanopsin protein
b. Paternal copy of the Melanopsin protein
c. Maternal copy of the UBE3A gene
d. Paternal copy of the UBE3A gene
e. None of the above
Xavier at al. observed ____ of phagocytic activity in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and rostral migratory stream (RMS); they observed ____ of phagocytic activity in the Olfactory Bulb (OB).
a). high levels, low levels
b). low levels, high levels
c). they observed high levels in both the SVZ/RMS and OB
d). they observed low levels in both the SVZ/RMS and OB
In Xavier et al, microglia depletion ________ the number of BrdU+ cells that reached the Olfactory Bulb layer.
A. Slightly increased
B. Slightly decreased
C. Sharply decreased
D. Had no effect on
In Xavier et al, which of the following cytokines was NOT expressed more in subventricular zone (SVZ) cells than cortical cells?
From Xavier et al, the subventricular zone contains a subset of microglia that have direct effects on neuroblast survival and migration. True/false
Xavier et al observed that subventricular zone (SVZ) microglia expressed _____ levels of pSTAT6 than cortical cells, suggesting an alternatively activated _____ phenotype.
A. Higher, macrophage
B. Lower, macrophage
C. Higher, pyknotic
D. Lower, pyknotic
True or False? Hao et al. demonstrated that forniceal DBS improves cognitive function by means of the cholinergic system.
According to Hao et al, forniceal DBS restored and in vivo in RTT mice.
A. Hippocampal LTD, neurogenesis
B. Hippocampal LTD, neurodegeneration
C. Hippocampal LTP, neurogenesis
D. Hippocampal LTP, neurodegeneration
Forniceal DBS enhanced what type of fear memory in RTT mice?
A. Contextual fear memory
B. Cued fear memory
C. Both A and B
D. None of the above
Forniceal DBS enhanced ___________ in mouse models of Rett Syndrome.
A. Contextual fear memory
B. Spatial learning
C. Hippocampal LTP
D. All of the above