Lecture 21 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 21 Deck (30):
1

one purpose of sleep is that it replenishes __

glycogen stores in the brain

2

one purpose of sleep is that it consolidates __

memories

3

sleep is a highly __ behavior, even though it makes us __, implying an __

conserved; vulnerable; evolutionary advantage

4

in adults the average duration of sleep is __

7.5 hours/day

5

babies sleep ~__ a day

16-17 hours

6

older adults sleep __ (more or less?) than younger adults, but they __

less; nap frequently

7

sleep deprivation rat experiment: sleep detected in the __ rat (via __) triggers the floor to __
__ rat sleeps __
__ rat sleep __

experimental; EEG; move
experimental rat sleeps never
control rat sleeps intermittently

8

4 consequences of sleep deprivation in rats

increased food intake, weight loss, failure to regulate body temperature, eventual death

9

sleep deprivation in rats: food intake goes __ while weight goes __

up; down

10

sleep deprivation in humans mostly causes changes in __

mood and cognitive abilities

11

the longest voluntary sleep deprivation was __

11 days (he recovered and lived)

12

fatal familial insomnia

adult onset, patients die in several years, hallucinations, seizures, and loss of motor control

13

ability to perform simple arithmetic __ as people are sleep-deprived

goes down

14

sleep deprivation in humans also causes increased risk of __ (3)

diabetes, heart disease, and obesity

15

sleep deprivation in humans also causes

impaired immune system, decreased temperature

16

the circadian clock is a __ periodicity that controls many __ in addition to __

24-hour; physiological processes; sleep and wakefulness

17

what are 2 circadian inputs/ __)?

zetigeibers; light; temperature

18

two hormones that have circadian rhythms (not melatonin)

cortisol and growth hormone

19

internal "clock" operates in the absence of __

external information

20

in the absence of cues, the sleep wake cycle __

continues to oscillate

21

in the absence of cues, the individual's clock cycles with its own natural rhythm that is __

just over 24 hours long

22

the internal clock can be __ to maintain appropriate period with the daily cycle

entrained

23

photoentrainment

synchronization of the circadian clock by light

24

what are the sensory transducers?

melanopsin-containing retinal ganglion cells (RGC)

25

a subset of RGC contain __ and are __ by light (the __ (same/opposite) of rods and cones)

melanopsin; depolarized/activated; opposite

26

what is the photopigment?

melanopsin, only found in these particular RGCs, not in rods or cones

27

melanospin-containing RGCs encode __

environmental illumination

28

melanopsin is most sensitive to __

short wavelength light (blue range)

29

light is sensed by the retina, and goes to __

suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)

30

what is the master regulator/master clock?

the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) (of the hypothalamus)