Lecture 13 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 13 Deck (33):
1

in the off/resting state of monomeric g-protein coupled receptors, is RAS bound to GTP or GDP?

GDP in off state, GTP in on state

2

GTP-binding protein is an intermediate __

transducing molecule

3

effector proteins activate __ who can activate __

secondary messengers; a secondary effector, blah blah blah

4

secondary messenger targets are usually __ or __

protein kinases or protein phosphatases

5

cAMP is comprised of 2 __ and 2 __ = __

regulatory domains; catalytic domains; R2C2 complex

6

active catalytic subunits phoshorylate downstream targets and leads to regulation of __

neurotransmitter release, neurotransmitter synthesis, ion channel/receptor function, calcium homeostasis, cytoskeletal function, gene expression, synaptic plasticity

7

IP3 and DAG (diacylglycerol) cooperate (with __) to activate __

Ca; protein kinase C (PKC)

8

CREB is a __ factor -- binds to certain __ thereby increasing or decreasing the __

cellular transcription; DNA sequences; transcription of downstream genes

9

in an unstimulated cell, creb is not __ but can become so through several different __

phosphorylated; signaling cascades

10

the mechanism of signaling cascades causing creb to be phosphorylated underlies the __ and allows us to get __

late-phase LTP effect; newly synthesized proteins

11

what do the senses do for us? (4)

perception, control of movement, regulation of internal organs, and maintenance of arousal

12

there are sensory systems for __ (examples __) and for __ (examples __)

external stimuli (visual, auditory, olfactory, gustatory, somatosensory)
internal stimuli (temperature, blood sugar, pressure and CO2, muscle tension and joint position (proprioception)

13

another word for perception

exteroception

14

proprioception

a sense of our body in space, relative position, etc.

15

muscle spindles

proprioceptors in muscle

16

kinesthesia

the overall sense of position, movement, etc.

17

interoceptors

perception of things happening inside your body (gut)

18

2 parts of ANS (autonomic sensory system)

sympathetic (fight or flight) and parasympathetic (rest and digest, feed and breed)

19

4 basic attributes of sensory systems

modality (what sense it is), intensity (how strong it is), duration, and location (where is it processed and encoded)

20

each sensory system has __ structures devoted to that sensory function

subcortical and cortical

21

intensity of a stimulus is represented by __

action potential frequency

22

strength of a stimulus is encoded by __

the amount of neurotransmitter released

23

concept of sensory adaptation

how you don't feel a chair you've been sitting on for a while until you think about it, or your clothes, etc.

24

each sensory neuron has a __ - a specific region in sensory space in which the stimulus will trigger __

receptive field; the depolarization of that neuron

25

transduction = __

converting sensory stimuli into neuronal electrical signals

26

the size of the receptive field determines __

the spatial resolution of that neuron/sensory system

27

secondary sensory neurons may have __ receptive fields

large or small

28

convergence of the signals onto the secondary neurons means that the secondary neuron has a __ receptive field and yields greater __

larger (its a combination of the receptive fields of the primary sensory neurons); greater sensitivity

29

non-convergence of the signals onto the secondary neurons mean that the secondary neuron has a __ receptive field and yields greater __

same size as primary sensory neuron (typically 1:1 ratio); greater spatial resolution

30

sensory information must be fine-tuned to achieve __

maximal discriminative capacity (by lateral inhibition)

31

concept of signal transduction

stimulus energy is converted into electrochemical energy

32

concept of neural encoding

key attributes of the stimulus must be represented in the signals of the primary sensory neuron

33

rods and cones are/aren't firing all the time
its only when light hits them that they are __

are; hyperpolarized