Lecture 10 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 10 Deck (50):
1

emotion = a type of response to a __

sensory input

2

two components of emotion:

emotional expression and emotional experience

3

with animal models, we can study the component of emotional __ (ex: __)

expression (fear & anxiety, anger & aggression)

4

with imaging techniques we can study brain regions involved in emotional __

experience

5

emotional expression = __
involves __ (3)

behavioral manifestation of emotional response
involves somatic motor system, visceral motor system (ANS), and secretory hypothalamus

6

emotional experience = __
involves __

internal perception or experience of emotion
involves cortex

7

sham rage =

all the behavioral manifestations of rage, without the appropriate stimulus

8

emotional experience requires __ but emotional expression does not (sham rage experiments)

cortex

9

no sham rage occurs if __
it occurs if you __

hypothalamus is removed along with the other stuff
remove cerebral cortex but leave the hypothalamus

10

emotional behaviors combine control of __

voluntary and involuntary motor systems

11

basic circuits for emotional behavior are located in __

brainstem and diencephalon

12

posterior hypothalamus is important for expression of __ and is normally inhibited by the __

anger & aggression; telencephalon

13

examples of somatic motor system and visceral motor system (ANS)

somatic: facial expression
visceral: physiological changes

14

norepinephrine, epinephrine, and serotonin are loaded into vesicles via __

vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT)

15

norepinephrine and epinephrine are cleared from the synaptic cleft via the __-dependent __, located in neurons and glia

Na; norepinephrine tranporter (NET)

16

norepinephrine, epinephrine, and serotonin (all monoamines) can also be broken down via __

monoamine oxidase (MAO)

17

norepinephrine, epinephrine, and serotonin act via __

GPCRs (alpha and beta-adrenergic receptors)

18

norepinephrine and epinephrine play a role in __

sleep and wakefulness, attention, feeding, fight or flight

19

__ is the main source of norepinephrine

locus coerulius

20

serotonin is cleared from synaptic cleft via __ in neurons
these are the target of __

selective serotonin transporter (SERT)
these are the target of SSRI antidepressants

21

epinephrine is normally made and secreted by the __

adrenal glands

22

the principal source of serotonin is the __

raphe nucleus in the brainstem

23

amygdala is very important for __, especially __

emotion, especially fear

24

__ is the hub through which sensory information/inputs from cortex and thalamus are translated to appropriate changes in behavior and physiology

the amygdala

25

insula =

butterflies in your stomach

26

this circuit mediates the neural process underlying the recognition via sensory input and reaction to, emotions

corticolimbic circuit

27

interspersed around the amygdala are these patches of __ neurons - the patches are called __ - that can gate the flow of info between the __ and __, and are important in __

inhibitory; intercalated cell massed (ICMs); BLA and CeA; fear conditioning, fear extinction, and anxiety

28

are intercalated neurons all the same morphology?

NO can be spiny, medium-spiny, etc.

29

T/F: amygdala plays a role in fight or flight

True

30

Kluver-Bucy syndrome has been documented in __.
it is when a __ occurs, which removes __, and results in problems in __

animals; temporal lobectomy; removes the temporal lobes, the amygdala, and the hippocampus; problems with visual recognition, hypersexuality, flattened emotional response, and lack of fear

31


bilateral ablation of the amygdala causes __, and humans cannot recognize __

flattened emotion (like Kluver-Bucy), reduced fear and aggression; the emotion of fear

32

stimulation of the amygdala leads to __ in humans, or __ in cats

increased vigilance/attention and anxiety/fear; fear and violent aggression

33

patient S.M. has __ and a result of __

calcification of the amygdala, no fear

34

low road to the amygdala =

(ex: a snake-like object) conveys a crude representation of the stimuli based on initial sensory input, causes a freeze behavior very fast

35

high road to the amygdala =

lags a little but fills in the gaps in knowledge (yes that's a snake or no that's not a snake)

36

(stress) central amygdala projects to __ which releases __ which causes __ to release __ which stimulates __ to release __

PVN of the hypothalamus; CRH; anterior pituitary; ACTH; adrenal gland; cortisol

37

cortisol provides __ to PVN of hypothalamus

negative feedback

38

3 common components of fear learning: __

fear conditioning, fear extinction, recall

39

fear conditioning is based on __ and is a form of __, an association between __.

operant conditioning; learning; the aversive stimuli and the neutral tone

40

extinction is NOT __ - it is __

forgetting; parallel learning

41

how are neural signals integrated?

spatial summation and temporal summation

42

spatial summation = summation of __

PSPs arriving on different dendrites or from different axons

43

temporal summation = summation of __

PSPs arriving at slightly different times

44

during high frequency stimulation, postsynaptic membrane is strongly __
AMPA receptors bind __ which causes more channels to open which causes large influx of __ which causes strong depolarization which causes a big EPSP

depolarized; glutamate; Na+

45

during high frequency stimulation, __ and __ causes NMDA receptors to open and influx of __

glutamate binding; strong depolarization; Na+ and Ca+

46

Ca entry increases __ receptor currents by causing __ or __. this is __

AMPA; modification of existing receptors or insertion of new receptors into postsynaptic membrane
long-term potentiation

47

in conditioned fear in rats:
high blood pressure is a result of the amygdala talking to the __
freezing is a result of the amygdala talking to the __

hypothalamus; midbrain RF

48

the amygdala is the site of __, supporting its role in conditioning

long-term potentiation

49

during fear extinction, inputs from the __ activate inhibitory neurons of the ICMs (intercalated cell masses)

dorsomedial prefrontal cortex

50

fear conditioning and fear extinction represent to __ but __ forms of learning that function to control the __

parallel but independent; expression and extinction of conditioned fear