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Flashcards in Lecture 11 Deck (61):
1

synaptic plasticity

the ability of synapses to strengthen OR weaken over time in response to changes in activity

2

learning: (2 definitions)

1. acquisition of new information or knowledge
2. a change in behavior as a result of experience

3

memory: (2 definitions)

1. retention of learned information
2. ability to store and recall learned experiences

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short-term synaptic facilitation: when two or more action potentials __ and cause prolonged, elevated __ and an increase in __

arrive very close in time; Ca in the presynaptic terminal; the next action potential's strength

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short-term synaptic facilitation: as we increase the interval between two action potentials, the amount of facilitation __

goes down

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(short-term synaptic facilitation) the facilitation effect is only about __ (nothing else matters)

presynaptic calcium

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two types of short-term synaptic plasticity:

facilitation (strengthening connection) and depression (weakening connection)

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short-term synaptic depression: when two or more action potentials happen closely in time, there is a decrease in __ due to the progressive __

synaptic strength; depletion of the pool of synaptic vesicles/using up all the neurotransmitters

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tetanus

sustained synaptic activity

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the level of synaptic depression is proportional to the __

amount of transmitter released from the presynapse (the more we release, the more we depress)

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(synaptic depression) what if we reduced the amount of calcium in the environment?

it would take longer for the neurotransmitter pools to be emptied, therefore we would delay the depression effect

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what type of relationship exists between amount of facilitation and interval between stimuli?

inverse root (L-shaped curve)

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what type of relationship exists between amount of depression and relative amount of transmitter released?

proportional (linear)

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procedural learning and memory: __ and __. performed without __. require __ but not easily __

skills and behaviors
performed without conscious recall
require practice
not easily forgotten

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declarative learning and memory: __ and __. __ recalled. easy __

facts and events. consciously recalled. "easy come easy go"

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2 types of implicit/procedural learning and memory

associative and non-associative

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associative learning is a __ relationship, association is learned between __ or __

predictive; two stimuli or stimuli and a behavior

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classical conditioning: __ response is expressed in response to a __

innate; neutral stimulus

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which type of implicit/procedural learning does this describe? "learning to predict future events based on experience (negative or positive)"

associative

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what type of conditioning, and learning, is the example of Pavlov's dog

classical conditioning; implicit/procedural learning

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what type of conditioning, and learning is the example of Skinner's rats

operant conditioning; implicit/prodecural learning

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non-associative learning produces a change in the __ due to repeated exposure to the __

strength of response to a single stimulus; same stimulus

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an example of non-associative learning would be

aplysia gill/siphon withdrawal reflex

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non-associative learning: the response changes with __

experience

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classical conditioning pop culture example

the office: Dwight and the altoids!

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Aplysia have a simple __ and __ neurons

nervous system; large, identifiable neurons

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what is the gill-withdrawal reflex of Aplysia?

if you touch the siphon, the animal retracts the entire thing (siphones, gills, etc.)

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what is the decreased response of Aplysia after repeated probing of the siphon due to?

habituation, NOT anything like muscle fatigue

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if you pair a noxious stimulus (__) with gentle touch of siphon you get __, which is an example of __

tail shock; an enhance gill withdrawal response; sensitization

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sensitization allow an animal to __

generalize the response to an aversive stimuli, so that they respond the same way to other stimuli (generalize the response to one stimuli, to others)

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with repeated pairing of the siphon/tail thing, you can make the generalized response __

long-term

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gill withdrawal habituation causes a weakening of the __ synapses, (__)

sensory neuron to motor neuron; synaptic depression

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(synaptic depression/habituation) if we stimulate the __, we get an EPSP on the __. this EPSP gets smaller and smaller as stimulation continues, it becomes __ and __

sensory neuron; motor neuron; habituated; runs out of neurotransmitter to release

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(habituation) the action potential from the sensory neuron never changes strength (T/F)

TRUE! its the EPSP in the motor neuron that diminishes

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(gill withdrawal sensitization) __ from secondary pathway (__) talks back to sensory neuron in siphon to __ the response

modulatory interneuron; tail shock; enhance

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gill withdrawal habituation is an example of synaptic __
gill withdrawal sensitization is an example of synaptic __

depression; facilitation

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modulatory interneuron releases __ which enhances neurotransmitter release from the __, which leads to an increase in excitation of the __ and therefore an enhanced response

serotonin; siphon sensory neuron; motor neuron

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shock activates __ release from __

serotonin; modulatory interneuron

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serotonin activates __ in the axonal terminals of the __, which activate __ which causes an increase in __ which activates __ - an enzyme that affects protein expression... all leading to more neurotransmitter (__) release

G-protein coupled receptors; sensory neuron; Adenalyl cyclase; cyclic AMP; protein kinase A; glutamate

40

Protein kinase A __ potassium channels - makes them work better but reduces __ (reduces the probability that __)
so we're essentially stopping the __ phase and prolonging the __, allowing more __ to come in, allowing more release of the neurotransmitter

phosphorylates; voltage sensitivity; potassium channels will open during a presynaptic action potential
repolarization phase (when K channels open); presynaptic action potential; calcium

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what does the phosphorylation of K channels by protein kinase A cause? (3)

longer-lasting action potentials, more Ca influx, and more neurotransmitter (glutamate) release

42

short-term memory cascade:
long-term memory cascade:

G-protein activation leads to protein kinase A causing a change in ion conductance, causing more calcium influx and more glutamate release
second messenger cascade involving protein kinase A and CREB and more transcription (both caused by serotonin)

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short-term memory is post-translational __
long-term memory is changes in __ and __

modification of existing proteins; gene expression and synthesis of new proteins

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the hippocampus is essential for __

forming new memories

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episodic memory

the collection of past personal experiences that occurred at particular time and place

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patient H.M. had severe __, they removed significant portions of the brain including __ and he could no longer __

epilepsy; hippocampus; form new episodic memories

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example of episodic memory

spatial navigation

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what does the hippocampus look like?

a seahorse!

49

spatial learning and memory in rats depends on the __

hippocampus

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Morris water maze: __
normal rats: __
rats with no hippocampus: __

hidden platform in pool
1st time takes a while to find it, soon (after 10 trials) learns where it is
never learn where it is (first trial and 10th trial look the same)

51

hippocampal place cells experiment found that hippocampal cell increased their activity whenever a rat _-

was in a certain region of an arena

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hippocampal place cells: each cell's "firing field" =

region of arena where that cell is active

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hippocampal cells are ___-tuned

spatially

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is the hippocampus the first region of the brain where we have observed "place" neurons?

yes

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hippocampal place cells: are the shape and size of firing field fairly consistent?

no, they can vary quite a bit from one cell to another

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during high frequency stimulation, Ca influx leads to the modification of __

AMPA receptors

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Ca enters the postsynaptic dendrite through __ receptors and activates long-lasting changes in __ receptors

NMDA; AMPA

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more AMPA receptors increases the permeability to __, which means __

Na; larger EPSPs

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T/F: long-term potentiation is NMDA dependent?

true, because we need the calcium influx!

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remember: gNa =

permeability to Na

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long-term depression: __ influx of Ca causes this by inducing __ of AMPA receptors from the synapse. __ AMPA receptors = __ EPSPs

small; removal; fewer; smaller, weaker