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Flashcards in Quiz 2 questions Deck (20):

The conversion of stimulus energy into electrochemical energy by sensory receptor cells is known as __.



With respect to NMDA channels, strong depolarization leads to the removal of ___ from the channel pore which allows ___ and ___ ions to flow into the cell.

magnesium; sodium; calcium


In sensory systems, the intensity of a sensory stimulus is represented by ___

action potential frequency


Which of these statements is true regarding emotional expression and experience?

A. Emotional expression requires cortex but emotional experience does not
B. Emotional experience and emotional expression both require an intact brain.
C. Emotional experience requires cortex but emotional expression does not
D. None of the above



T/F: NMDA receptors are both ligand gated and voltage dependent



According to Hebb’s Postulate, the coordinated activity of presynaptic and postsynaptic neurons strengthens the synapse between the two. Which of the following examples demonstrates the SPECIFICITY aspect of this phenomenon?

A. An active presynaptic neuron and an inactive presynaptic neuron synapse onto an active third neuron; when synchronized only the synapse between the active presynaptic neuron and the active postsynaptic neuron is strengthened.
B. A strongly firing presynaptic neuron and a weakly firing presynaptic neuron synapse onto an active third neuron; ALL neurons synchronize and synapses from the weak and strong cell onto the third cell are both strengthened
C. Both A and B
D. Neither A nor B



In the Kervern et al., article on perinatal ethanol exposure, AP-5 blocked LFS600-induced LTD revealing that LFS600-induced LTD was dependent on ___.



During sensitization in Aplysia, a noxious stimulus causes ___ release from a modulatory interneuron which ultimately results in release of more ___ at the synapse
between the sensory and motor neurons.

Serotonin; Glutamate


A response to a _____ constitutes a
conditioned fear response in the rat.

Tone paired repeatedly with a foot shock


Patient S.M., who suffered selective bilateral
damage to the amygdala, exhibited __.

an absence of fear


A small influx of Ca++ induces ____ via _____ of AMPA receptors.

LTD; removal (vice versa for large influx of Ca)


Which of the following statements about the amygdala is false?
A. It is involved in making associations between neutral and fearful stimuli
B. It receives sensory input from the thalamus
C. It shows NMDA-receptor dependent long-term potentiation
D. It is involved in procedural learning



Which of the following does not lead to in the activation of CREB?
A. Protein Kinase A
B. Cyclic AMP
C. MAP kinase
D. All of the above contribute to CREB



Which of the following is an “effector” of Gprotein-initiated
signaling mechanisms?
A. Adenylyl cyclase
B. Guanylyl cyclase
C. Phospholipase C
D. All of the above



Which of the following is a second messenger whose activity is terminated by a phosphatase?
A. Calcium
B. Cyclic AMP
C. Cyclic GMP
D. Inositol trisphosphate (IP3)



Which of the following statements about the plasticity of synapses in the mammalian CNS is false?
A. The hallmark of both short-term and longterm synaptic plasticity is that they always increase the strength of synaptic connections
B. The efficacy of synapses can be adjusted by modulating the amount of neurotransmitter that is released
C. Calcium ions play a central role in at least some forms of synaptic plasticity
D. Changes in synaptic efficacy can occur over time scales ranging from milliseconds to years



Firing an action potential in an axon initially causes a 10 mV depolarization (EPSP) in a postsynaptic neuron, but after giving a certain stimulus to the axon, firing it causes an 8mV
depolarization, after each action potential. This phenomenon is called ____________.
A. Potentiation
B. Depression
C. Facilitation
D. Augmentation



After firing a short burst of action potentials in an axon, researchers observe a larger EPSP in the postsynaptic cell, and this effect seems to last a few tens of milliseconds. This is most likely due to the presynaptic terminal having _____.
A. Extra calcium
B. Lowered calcium
C. Extra magnesium
D. Reduced sodium

A. Extra calcium


Silent synapses are “silent” because they
A. Have no presynaptic terminal
B. Have AMPA receptors but no NMDA receptors
C. Have NMDA receptors but no AMPA receptors
D. Lack voltage-gated sodium channels



A highly stressful reminder of a traumatic experience does which of the following?
A. Reinstates retention of the memory
B. Generalizes stress to other contexts
C. Dramatically increases anxiety-like behavior
D. All of the above