Lecture 15 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 15 Deck (24):
1

hearing is a form of __: __ energy (sound waves) are converted to __ energy via __ in the ear

mechanosensation; mechanical; electrochemical; mechanosensors

2

why is hearing important? (2)

orientation of the body to a novel stimulus
primary mode of communication (speech, music/expression)

3

2 physical properties of sound and their perceptual counterpart

frequency (pitch/tone) and amplitude (loudness/intensity)

4

human hearing sensitivity is __ (range), and the upper-limit __

20Hz to 20kHz; declines with age

5

ear consists of 3 parts:

outer ear, middle ear, inner ear

6

__ of the outer ear collect sound waves and direct them to the __. this also aids in sound __

pinna, concha, and auditory meatus; auditory canal; localization

7

middle ear consists of the __ and __

tympanic membrane; 3 tiny bones/ossicles (malleus, incus, and stapes)

8

the tympanic membrane __ when struck by sound waves

vibrates

9

malleus, incus, and stapes transmit information to the __

oval window of the cochlea

10

vibrations against the oval window are transmitter into the __

cochlea

11

the cochlea is located in the __ and is a __ organ, containing __

inner ear; fluid-filled; hair cells

12

what are the mechanoreceptors for sound?

hair cells

13

stereocilia are located in the __ membrane, but soma of hair cells are located in the __ membrane

tectorial; basilar

14

__ transduction is mediated by hair cells

mechanoelectrical

15

hair cell somas are in __lymph

peri

16

stria vascularis maintains __

endolymph

17

influx from __, efflux to __

endolymph; perilymph

18

the cochlea encodes information about the __ (3) of the acoustic wave

amplitude, frequency, and duration

19

apex = __, base of cochlea = __

floppy; stiff (requires higher frequencies)

20

auditory system uses parallel pathways (the __ branches to innervate __ branches of the cochlear nucleus)

auditory nerve; 3

21

information of each ear reaches __ of the system (even in the brain steam)

both sides

22

(flow) auditory nerve to __, to __, to nucleus of __, to inferior __, to __ (thalamus)

cochlear nuclei; medial and lateral superior olive; nucleus of lateral lemniscus; inferior colliculus; medial geniculate nucleus of the thalamus

23

the __ is the first place where signals from the two ears come together and can be compared

superior olive

24

cells in the lateral superior olive look for __; cells in the medial superior olive look for __

differences in sound intensity; particular timing differences (between the two ears)