Lecture 16 Flashcards Preview

Neurobiology > Lecture 16 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lecture 16 Deck (54):
1

ossicles are __

3 bones in the middle ear - malleus, incus and stapes

2

conduction of sound waves is based on the __ movement of __

alternating movement; the basilar and tectorial membranes

3

the movement of the basilar and tectorial membranes __ the bundles of hair cells

stretches and relaxes

4

between the basilar and tectorial membranes is __ and __ that __ the sound

hair cells and stereocilia; transduce

5

the __lymph is between the basilar and tectoral membranes and contains the hair cells

perilymph

6

the __lymph is in between the tectorial and vestibular membranes

endolymph

7

movement of the fluid in the ear has __ and __; waves __ through this aqueous environment

frequency and amplitude; propagate

8

hair cells are __receptors, meaning __ activates the receptor channels

mechano; a physical force

9

hair cells are what underly the __

transduction of auditory stimuli

10

the bottom of hair cells are attached to the __

basilar membrane

11

fluid wave movement causes the __ membrane to move, causing the __ to move

basilar; stereocilia

12

stereocilia can only move __. when they stretch (move in the direction of __) it causes __ channels to open and it is the influx of this __ that __ the membranes/hair cells

in one plane; the longest hair; K; K; depolarizes

13

when stereocilia move in the direction of __ (slackening/no tension), the hair cell __ because/and __ channels are closed

the shortest hair; hyperpolarizes; K

14

after depolarization, __ is released and picked up by the __ and action potentials are sent on to the brain

glutamate; afferent nerve

15

dynamic effects of K? it's functioning to both __

depolarize AND hyperpolarize the hair cells

16

different fluid regions contain different __

ion concentrations

17

perilymph (or __) and endolymph are __

scala tympani; fluid-filled regions

18

endolymph is super __ in K concentration (so when hair cells are stretched and K channels open, K goes into the cell __)

high; along its concentration gradient

19

perilymph is super __ in K concentration (so when hair cells are slack, K leaves the cell __)

low; along its concentration gradient

20

at rest about __ percent of K channels are open, so there is __ at rest

10; a tonic signal

21

when stereocilia are stretched the membrane potential is __ than at rest and we see more __

higher; action potentials

22

when stereocilia are slacked the membrane potential is _- than at rest and we see less __

lower; action potentials

23

characteristic frequency = __

the frequency at which you have peak sensitivity (lowest threshold to respond)

24

each neuron/receptor responds best to a particular __

frequency

25

frequency coding in the basilar membrane: near the apex we're going to have __ that are __ the hair cells; towards the base of the __ we're going to need __ to do the same thing

low frequency; exciting; cochlea; higher frequencies

26

auditory cortex is organized in a __

topographic map

27

the __ region of the auditory cortex corresponds to the apex. the __ region of the auditory cortex corresponds to the base of the basilar membrane

anterior or rostral (front); posterior or caudal (back)

28

going from apex to base of basilar membrane (and thus from __ region of AC to __ region), do sounds get lower or higher?

front; back; higher

29

visual system processes light __

reflected off distant objects

30

visual system helps us __ (3)

identify objects (shape, color, texture), localize objects, and asses movement

31

visual system is very __

quick

32

visual stimuli are transduced by __

photoreceptors

33

signals conveying visual info leave the retina via __ that convey these signals from the eye to the brain

retinal ganglion cells

34

are the left and right visual fields represented in each eye?

yes

35

light = __, photons/waves of various levels of energy

electromagnetic radiation

36

high energy light = __ wavelength, __ frequency
lower energy = __ wavelength, __ frequency

shorter; higher; larger; lower

37

visible light falls within __ nm

400-700

38

hot colors are __ energy and cold colors are __ energy

lower; higher

39

light of mixed wavelengths = __
light of one wavelength = __

white; color

40

accommodation =

dynamic changes in the lens in response to where you are looking (far or near)

41

myopia = __, the image of distant objects are in focus __
hyperopia = __, the image of distant objects are in focus __

nearsightedness; in front of the retina; farsightedness; behind the retina

42

retina = __ of cells and __ of synapses (__ types of cells)

3 layers; 2 layers; 5 types

43

in the retina: light goes from __ but information goes from __

front to back; back to front

44

the retina is specialized to detect __ intensity, not __ intensity

differences in; absolute

45

5 types of cells in retina

photoreceptors, bipolar cells, horizontal cells, amacrine cells, and retinal ganglion cells

46

2 types of photoreceptors

rods (light/dark) and cones (color)

47

the outer segment of __ have more discs, this is what underlies their greater __

rods; sensitivity to light

48

after a certain point of brightness, rods begin to __ and then cones take over for __

saturate; photopic vision

49

scotopic vision =

lowest level of illumination, only rods activated, no color vision, poor acuity

50

mesopic vision =

both rods and cones active

51

photopic vision = best __, good __, __ active

visual acuity; color vision; only cones

52

the __ in the photoreceptor disk membranes absorb light of __

photopigments; specific wavelengths

53

photopigments in rods is __

rhodopsin

54

__ types of -opsins for cones, that absorb different ranges of wavelengths

3