Flashcards in Quiz 3 Questions Deck (20):
Alpha motor neurons release what neurotransmitter?
Which cell type(s) convey signals from the muscle spindle to the alpha motor neuron in the spinal cord?
B. Gamma (γ)
Interactions between actin and myosin filaments mediating muscle contraction will continue as long as:
A. Intracellular calcium levels are high
B. ATP is available
C. A and B
D. None of the above
Which type of motor neuron sets the “gain” or the amount of force generated in response to a given stretch?
A. Alpha (α)
B. Gamma (γ)
The area of the brain thought to be at the apex
of the neural hierarchy mediating our internal
clock is known as the ___________________.
A. Pituitary gland
B. Suprachiasmatic nucleus
C. Associational cortex
D. Reticular activating system
Melatonin levels increase as environmental
light levels increase. True/False
Who is most likely to spend the most time in
A. 82 year old Grandmother
B. 38 year old Mother
C. 6 year old child
D. Infant (
What are the effects at the internal globus pallidus (GPi) and the motor cortex following
dopamine binding to striatal D2 receptors?
A. GPi is inhibited, cortex is excited
B. GPi is activated, cortex is inhibited
C. GPi is inhibited, cortex is inhibited
D. GPi is activated, cortex is excited
Which of the following is true with regard to the retinal cells that mediate photoentrainment
of circadian rhythms?
A. They are rods
B. They contain rhodopsin
C. A & B
D. They are depolarized by light
Which of the following characteristics applies to the cells of the striatum?
A. Medium spiny morphology
B. Release GABA
C. Express dopamine receptors
D. All of the above apply to striatal neurons
Which of the following statements is false?
A. The basal ganglia include the caudate, putamen, and globus pallidus
B. The major outputs of the basal ganglia are from the putamen
C. The pallidum includes the globus pallidus and the substantia nigra pars reticulata
D. The corpus striatum is the structure that receives the bulk of the inputs to the basal ganglia
Parkinson’s disease is associated with loss of dopaminergic neurons in the __________.
A. Substantia nigra
D. Globus pallidus
Which of the following statements on functional reorganization after brain damage is false?
A. Movements of paralyzed limbs may return to some extent
B. As recovery progresses, larger areas of cortex become activated during an
experimental task (as seen by brain imaging)
C. To some degree, undamaged regions of cortex can functionally substitute for damaged regions
D. The extensive connectivity of motor cortex may facilitate recovery of motor functions
Which of the following is not one of the main repair processes that normally occur in mammals when nervous tissue is damaged?
A. Long-range regrowth of damaged axons in the peripheral nervous system
B. Long-range regrowth of damaged axons in the central nervous system
D. All of the above are repair processes that normally occur in mammals when nervous tissue is damaged.
The basal ganglia are thought to elicit movement via _______.
A. direct excitation of the motor cortex
B. Disinhibition of thalamic neurons
C. Direct excitation of thalamic neurons
D. Excitatory projections from the subthalamic nucleus to higher-order association areas of
An external or environmental cue that entrains or
synchronizes an organisms biological rhythms to Earth’s 24 hour day-light period is called a(n) ___________.
A. Circadian stimulus
D. None of the above
Deep sleep (Stages 3 & 4) is associated with which of the following?
A. Rapid eye movements
B. Sleep spindles
C. Asynchronous EEG activity
D. Delta waves
The length of time spent in REM gets progressively shorter after each sleep cycle. True/False
Injecting 6-OHDA into the substantia nigra mimicked Parkinson's Disease, because 6-
OHDA ________ dopaminergic neurons.