Flashcards in Heart & Blood vessels Deck (30):
What is heart failure?
caused by the heart failing to pump enough blood around the body at the right pressure.
What is a syndrome?
-caused by multiple things
-look for signs and symptoms and not disease itself
What happens when the heart does not pump as effectively as it should?
-oedema - pulmonary (water in the lungs) and peripheral (in the legs normally)
What can cause your heart not to pump properly?
-ischaemic heart disease (dead tissue/ fibrosis after heart attack)
- valvular heart disease
-congenital heart disease
Why may hypertension cause heart failure? (brief explanation)
- more pressure the more difficult it is
- puts pressure on heart
- make muscle get bigger and become effective
- will wear the heart out
initially when the heart fails it starts to compensate, what is happening though?
- leads to cardiac hypertrophy
- leads to dilation
- eventual inability to maintain normal function (this is when symptoms occur)
What are the signs and symptoms of cardiac failure?
- shortness of breath (fluid on lungs)
- fatigue ( pulmonary and peripheral oedema)
- fluid in lungs/ pulmonary oedema
- all over excessive fluid-filled veins (systemic venous congestion & oedema)
What is the difference between acute cardiac failure and chronic?
acute - happens quick such as after MI
Chronic - hypertension, develops over time
if left side of the heart is involved in cardiac failure what happens?
- fluid backs up into the lungs
- more pulmonary oedema and SOB
- raised jugular venous pressure
If right side of the heart is involved in cardiac failure what happen?
- fluid backs up into rest the body
- large abdomen, fluid in the legs
Congestive heart failure is were both sides of the heart are effected in heart failure. what are the effects of this?
- fluid goes into the lungs and rest of the body
In valvular heart disease what is stenosis?
- failure of valve to open completely
- harder to flow forwards
In valvular disease what is meant by incompetence/regurgitation?
-failure of valve to close
- allowing reverse flow
In valvular disease what is vegetations?
- abnormal tissue growth on valve (fibrin, platelet and bacteria)
What are the under lying causes for valvular heart disease?
- age related degeneration
- infection (endocarditis/rheumatic disease)
- after heart attack
- heart failure
- IV drug use
What are the symptoms/consequences with valvular heart disease?
- ventricular hypertrophy
- syncope (fainting)
- heart failure
- infarcts to kidney and spleen
What is infective endocarditis?
when lining of heart becomes infected/inflammed
What are the causes of infective endocarditis?
- when bacteria present in the blood (anything that makes the outside world come in contact with the blood)
- mass of bacteria builds up
- common in IV drug users
What side of the is affected in IV drug users?
- right side
- left side in others
What examination would show endocarditis?
What are the clinical presentations of endocarditis?
- heart failure
- new murmur
What is pericarditis and myocarditis ?
myo (muscle) - muscle inflamed
peri (means outside) - outside of heart inflamed
- can be caused by anything that may cause inflammation to the heart (ie radiation)
*In cardiomyopathy (disease of heart muscle) a category of this is dilated, what does this mean?
- when its stretched so contraction is noit as good
eg. myocarditis, alcohol, sarcoid
*In cardiomyopathy (disease of heart muscle) a category of this is hypertrophic, what does this mean?
wall of ventrical becomes thicker and therefore does not work as effectively
eg. storage disease
*In cardiomyopathy (disease of heart muscle) a category of this is restrictive, what does this mean?
- doesn't give way as much and makes filling harder
eg. chemotherapy related
What is hypertrophic cardiomyopathy?
- when heart muscle gets to big and makes blood flow worse
- common in footballers when they have heart problems on pitch
What are clinical features of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy?
- black out
What is an aneurysm?
when artery is permanently stretched
- aorta is common
-can burst and if major blood vessel can cause sudden death
What are the treatments for aneurysms?
- reducing arterial pressure