Henkel_Abdomen Flashcards Preview

JK Hu A&P > Henkel_Abdomen > Flashcards

Flashcards in Henkel_Abdomen Deck (82):
1

name the organs in the left and right hypochondriac region and of the epigastric region:

Liver, gallbladder R kidney; r and l kidneys, Liver, Stomach, pancreas; liver (tip) stomach, pancreas, L kidney

2

name the regions in the right and left flanks as well as the umbilical region:

R kidney, liver (tip), ascending colon, small intestine; r and l kidneys, stomach, pancreas, small intestine, transverse colon; left kidneys, descending colon, small intestine

3

name the regions in the right and left groin as well as the pubic region:

the right kidney, the ascending colon, the small intestine sigmoidal colon, appendix, cecum; small intestine, bladder, sigmoidal colon; small intestine, descending colon

4

level of dermatomes: T6-T7, T10, L1

xiphoid, umbilicus, inguinal ligament

5

superficial drainage of lymph/watershed line:

above umbilicus drains to pectoral node

6

Scarpa's fascia does not extend over the thigh but instead is fused with the deep fascia at the ________

inguinal ligament

7

scarpa's fascia merges with _____ and ends at the ______

fascia lata, inguinal ligament (fluid or blood can be Fascia lata is the deep fascia of the thigh. It is especially strong, investing the thigh like an elastic stocking.trapped here when something in the peritoneal cavity ruptures)

8

what is fascia of scarpa:

The fascia of Scarpa is the deep membranous layer (stratum membranosum), of the superficial fascia of the abdomen. It is a layer of the anterior abdominal wall. It is found deep to the Camper Fascia and superficial to the external oblique muscle.

9

what is fascia of camper

The superficial layer (fascia of Camper) is a thick superficial layer of the anterior abdominal wall.[1] It is areolar in texture, and contains in its meshes a varying quantity of adipose tissue. It is found superficial to Scarpa's fascia.

10

name the anterolateral abdominal muscles:

Rectus abdominis
External oblique
Internal oblique
Transverse abdominis

11

name the posterior abdominal muscles:

Quadratus lumborum
The quadratus lumborum is a muscle of the posterior abdominal wall. It is the deepest abdominal muscle and commonly referred to as a back muscle. It is irregular and quadrilateral in shape and broader below than above.
Psoas major
is a long fusiform muscle located on the side of the lumbar region of the vertebral column and brim of the lesser pelvis. It joins the iliacus muscle to form the iliopsoas.

12

Between the peritoneum and the muscular wall there is an extraperitoneal layer of fat and deep fascia called the ________

transversalis fascia.
The transverse fascia (or transversalis fascia) is a thin aponeurotic membrane which lies between the inner surface of the transverse abdominal muscle and the parietal peritoneum.

It forms part of the general layer of fascia lining the abdominal parietes, and is directly continuous with the iliac fascia, internal spermatic, and pelvic fasciae.

In the inguinal region, the transverse fascia is thick and dense in structure and is joined by fibers from the aponeurosis of the transverse abdominal. It becomes thin as it ascends to the diaphragm and blends with the fascia covering the under surface of this muscle.
The peritoneum /ˌpɛrᵻtəˈniːəm/ is the serous membrane that forms the lining of the abdominal cavity or coelom in amniotes and some invertebrates, such as annelids. It covers most of the intra-abdominal (or coelomic) organs, and is composed of a layer of mesothelium supported by a thin layer of connective tissue.

13

External oblique
Origin: _______
Insertion: _________

Origin: lower half of the rib cage
Insertion: linea alba, ilium, and pubis

14

Internal oblique
Origin: ______
Insertion: _______

Origin: thoracolumbar fascia, ilium, and lateral third of inguinal ligament,
Insertion: costal margin, linea alba, and pubis

15

Transverse abdominis
Origin:_______
Insertion:________

Origin: Inner surface of costal margin and thoracolumbar fascia
Insertion: Linea alba and pubis

16

Rectus Abdominus:
Origin: _____
Insertion: _____
Semilunar line:______
Segmental innervation from ________
Tendinous intersections
Linea alba – ______
intersection of aponeurotic fibers from________to pubis

Origin: sternum and rib
Insertion: pubis
Semilunar line: marks lateral border
Segmental innervation from thoracolumbar nerves and L1
Tendinous intersections
Linea alba – midline intersection of aponeurotic fibers from xiphoid to pubis

17

The rectus sheath is formed by the ______of the three flat muscles of the lateral wall

The rectus sheath is formed by the aponeuroses of the three flat muscles of the lateral wall

18

After surrounding the muscle they intersect at the ____with the ______ aponeuroses forming ______ (this would be relatively avascular in opening the abdominal cavity).

After surrounding the muscle they intersect at the midline with the contralateral aponeuroses forming linea alba (this would be relatively avascular in opening the abdominal cavity).

19

Above the umbilicus the anterior wall of the ____ is formed aponeuroses of the external oblique and the anterior half of internal oblique (the internal oblique aponeurosis splits into anterior and posterior leaves).

Above the umbilicus the anterior wall of the rectus sheath is formed aponeuroses of the external oblique and the anterior half of internal oblique (the internal oblique aponeurosis splits into anterior and posterior leaves).

20

The posterior wall is formed by the posterior half of the ______ and ________ aponeuroses.

The posterior wall is formed by the posterior half of the internal oblique and transverse abdominis aponeuroses.

21

Below the ______ there is a transition in the walls of the sheath.

Below the umbilicus there is a transition in the walls of the sheath.

22

The transition is marked on the _______ wall by an arcuate line where all layers of aponeuroses pass _______to rectus abdominis.

Below the umbilicus there is a transition in the walls of the sheath. The transition is marked on the posterior wall by an arcuate line where all layers of aponeuroses pass anterior to rectus abdominis.

23

Note the region of anastomosis femoral and subclavian circulation at:

Note the region of anastomosis femoral and subclavian circulation at superior and inferior epigastric arteries.

24

Segmental thoracoabdominal vessels are continuation of intercostals:

Segmental thoracoabdominal vessels are continuation of intercostals (T7-T11)

25

T12 is the subcostal nerve
L1 cutaneous branches form ______ and ______nerves

T12 is the subcostal nerve
L1 cutaneous branches form ilioinguinal and iliohypogastric nerves

26

Nerves and vessels are in plane between______ and ________

Nerves and vessels are in plane between internal oblique and transversus abdominis

27

When the ______ is closed and the diaphragm is fixed, contraction of the abdominal wall muscles increases intraabdominal pressure.

When the larynx is closed and the diaphragm is fixed, contraction of the abdominal wall muscles increases intraabdominal pressure. This is an important action in defecation, micturition, and parturition.
 

28

An ________ is formed when the intestines do not return to the abdominal cavity and remain external within the membranes of the umbilical cord

An omphalocele is formed when the intestines do not return to the abdominal cavity and remain external within the membranes of the umbilical cord

29

_________ is formed when there is an incomplete closure of the abdominal wall and a portion of the abdominal viscera herniate through the opening covered only by visceral peritoneum.
In both cases the viscera can be slowly returned to the body cavity over a period of days but gastroschisis is more serious in that scarring is apt to occur when visceral peritoneum is exposed externally.

Gastroschisis is formed when there is an incomplete closure of the abdominal wall and a portion of the abdominal viscera herniate through the opening covered only by visceral peritoneum.
In both cases the viscera can be slowly returned to the body cavity over a period of days but gastroschisis is more serious in that scarring is apt to occur when visceral peritoneum is exposed externally.

30

The ________ separates the anterior abdominal wall and thigh.

The inguinal ligament separates the anterior abdominal wall and thigh.

31

The ______ is the thickened inferior border of the external _______and serves as a point of origin for the lowest muscle fibers of the internal oblique.

The inguinal ligament is the thickened inferior border of the external oblique aponeurosis and serves as a point of origin for the lowest muscle fibers of the internal oblique.

32

Mark the anterior superior _______ laterally and the ______ medially. From these two points the lower border of the external ______is thickened and folded under.

Mark the anterior superior iliac sign laterally and the pubic tubercle medially. From these two points the lower border of the external oblique aponeurosis is thickened and folded under.

33

At the ______ some of its fibers reflect onto the ____ forming the _______

At the pubic tubercle some of its fibers reflect onto the pubic crest forming the lacunar ligament.

34

the ________ and pubic tubercle where the superficial inguinal ring presents as an opening in the________. This is the site of inguinal hernias.

in relation to the inguinal ligament and pubic tubercle where the superficial inguinal ring presents as an opening in the external oblique aponeurosis. This is the site of inguinal hernias.

35

The inguinal triangle is bounded by the_______, ________, and ______

The inguinal triangle is bounded by the inferior epigastric artery, lateral (semilunar) boundary of the rectus abdominis, and inguinal ligament

36

The ______ descend below the _________

The femoral vessels descend below the inguinal ligament

37

The _______ is lateral and the _______ is medial. Medial to the ______ there is a _______ containing lymphatic tissue.

The femoral artery is lateral and the femoral vein is medial. Medial to the femoral vein there is a fascial canal containing lymphatic tissue.

38

The superior ‘mouth’ of this canal opens into the abdominal cavity under the medial end of the ______ ______ femoral ring

The superior ‘mouth’ of this canal opens into the abdominal cavity under the medial end of the inguinal ligament and is called the femoral ring

39

The ________ is the site of most hernias in females. As the piece of gut (viscus) herniates through the ring and into the femoral canal it often turns upward to bulge out on the wall in the inguinal region as discussed below.

The femoral ring

40

The superficial inguinal ring lies within the inguinal triangle about 1-2 cm lateral and 1-2 cm superior to the pubic tubercle.

The _______ lies within the inguinal triangle about 1-2 cm lateral and 1-2 cm superior to the pubic tubercle.

41

The_______ separates the anterior abdominal wall and thigh. It is the thickened inferior border of the ______and serves as a point of origin for the lowest muscle fibers of the_______

The inguinal ligament separates the anterior abdominal wall and thigh. It is the thickened inferior border of the external oblique aponeurosis and serves as a point of origin for the lowest muscle fibers of the internal oblique.

42

The superficial inguinal ring is formed by an opening in the _______.

the external oblique aponeurosis.

43

A _______ is formed on the superior, medial side of the opening and a lateral crus on the inferior, lateral side. Intercrural fibers help bind the crura.

A medial crus is formed on the superior, medial side of the opening and a lateral crus on the inferior, lateral side. Intercrural fibers help bind the crura.

44

The _________ lies within the inguinal triangle about 1-2 cm lateral and 1-2 cm superior to the pubic tubercle. It is formed by an opening in the external oblique aponeurosis. A medial crus is formed on the superior, medial side of the opening and a lateral crus on the inferior, lateral side. Intercrural fibers help bind the crura.

The superficial inguinal ring lies within the inguinal triangle about 1-2 cm lateral and 1-2 cm superior to the pubic tubercle.

45

The __________ is an opening in the transversalis fascia located 2-2½ inches lateral to the superficial ring, above the inguinal ligament, and lateral to the_________

The deep inguinal ring is an opening in the transversalis fascia located 2-2½ inches lateral to the superficial ring, above the inguinal ligament, and lateral to the inferior epigastric artery.

46

The ________ is located along the oblique path of descent of the testis through the abdominal wall (or ______ in the female) from the deep to the superficial ring

The inguinal canal is located along the oblique path of descent of the testis through the abdominal wall (or gubernaculum in the female) from the deep to the superficial ring

47

Exiting the body wall at the superficial inguinal ring in both male and females is the ________ nerve

Exiting the body wall at the superficial inguinal ring in both male and females is the ilioinguinal nerve.

48

the ilioinguinal nerve is a cutaneous branch of the ________ of ______. It supplies the anterior skin of the scrotum in the male and labia majora in the female and the ilio part of the nerve supplies the thigh.

It is a cutaneous branch of the ventral primary ramus of L1.

49

It supplies the ______ in the male and _____ in the female and the _____ part of the nerve supplies the thigh.

It supplies the anterior skin of the scrotum in the male and labia majora in the female and the ilio part of the nerve supplies the thigh.

50

The spermatic cord is formed by the structures that descend through the anterior abdominal wall along with the testis. These include the _______, ________, and _______.

These include the ductus deferens, testicular artery, and pampiniform plexus of veins.

51

Each layer of the abdominal wall (through which the testis and cord ‘herniate’) contribute coverings (______) to the cord.

Each layer of the abdominal wall (through which the testis and cord ‘herniate’) contribute coverings (spermatic fascia) to the cord.

52

The lowest fibers of the ______muscle are superior to the path and, thus, make no contribution to the coverings.

The lowest fibers of the transversalis muscle are superior to the path and, thus, make no contribution to the coverings.

53

The ________ fascia includes loops of skeletal muscle fibers. These receive somatic motor innervation from the _______nerve.

The cremasteric fascia includes loops of skeletal muscle fibers. These receive somatic motor innervation from the genitofemoral nerve.

54

Visceral sensory and ____ fibers follow the cord to the testis.

Visceral sensory and postganglionic sympathetic fibers follow the cord to the testis.

55

The testes develops external to_______

The testes develops external to peritoneal cavity.

56

The _______ forms a path of descent.

The gubernaculum forms a path of descent.

57

The _______ descends as a finger-like communication with the peritoneal cavity and then obliterates leaving only a fluid filled sac partially surrounding the testis.

The processus vaginalis descends as a finger-like communication with the peritoneal cavity and then obliterates leaving only a fluid filled sac partially surrounding the testis.

58

The testes herniates through layers of the abdominal wall starting at the_______ring and emerging at the superficial ring

The testes herniates through layers of the abdominal wall starting at the deep inguinal ring and emerging at the superficial ring

59

The spermatic cord is formed by the ___, _____, and _____ of testicular veins along with _____ and lymphatic vessels.

the ductus deferens, testicular artery, and pampiniform plexus of testicular veins along with sympathetic nerves and lymphatic vessels.

60

An_______ by definition travels through the deep ring, along the inguinal canal, to the superficial ring. When the herniated bowel is reduced back to the peritoneal cavity, the neck of the hernia passes lateral to the inferior epigastric artery.

An indirect inguinal hernia by definition travels through the deep ring, along the inguinal canal, to the superficial ring. When the herniated bowel is reduced back to the peritoneal cavity, the neck of the hernia passes lateral to the inferior epigastric artery.

61

With an indirect inguinal hernia, the herniated mass emerges covered by all the layers of the ______as well as peritoneum.

With an indirect inguinal hernia, the herniated mass emerges covered by all the layers of the spermatic fascia as well as peritoneum.

62

_______follow the developmental path of descent of the testis. They are most often ______.

Indirect inguinal hernias follow the developmental path of descent of the testis. They are most often congenital.

63

The herniated mass (bowel) enters the_____ and exits the _____. It may descend to the scrotum and is covered by______

The herniated mass (bowel) enters the deep ring and exits the superficial ring. It may descend to the scrotum and is covered by all 3 layers of spermatic fascia.

64

Indirect inguinal hernias are usually ______whereas direct hernias are acquired.

Indirect inguinal hernias are usually congenital whereas direct hernias are acquired.

65

Since direct hernias enter the canal medial to the ______ they do not pass through the deep ring and therefore are not within the _______ fascia.

Since direct hernias enter the canal medial to the inferior epigastric artery they do not pass through the deep ring and therefore are not within the internal spermatic fascia.

66

A _____is a collection of fluid within the tunica vaginalis or remnant of the processes vaginalis. If it becomes filled with blood it is a hematocele.

A hydrocele is a collection of fluid within the tunica vaginalis or remnant of the processes vaginalis. If it becomes filled with blood it is a hematocele.

67

the inguinal canal contains:

spermata cord, round ligament, ilioingual nerve (sperm (right and left testes) Round Ligament

68

Inguinal hernia is _____ the inguinal ligament

superior (above)

69

femoral hernia is ______ inguinal ligament

below

70

_______ hernia follows path of testes:

indirect

71

______ hernia doe not follow path of testes:

direct

72

the lateral border of the inguinal triangle is :

inferior epigastric

73

the inferior epigastric connects to the:

femoral vein/artery

74

the superior border of the inguinal canal is:

inferior oblique, transverse abdominus, transfersallis

75

the anterior border of the inguinal canal is made of the:

external oblique, superficial ring

76

the posterior border of the inguinal canal is:

transversallis, conjoint tendon

77

the inferior border of the inguinal canal is :

inguinal ligament and lacunar ligament

78

omphalocele

An omphalocele is a birth defect in which an infant's intestine or other abdominal organs are outside of the body because of a hole in the belly button (navel) area. The intestines are covered only by a thin layer of tissue and can be easily seen.

79

gastroschisis

Gastroschisis is a birth defect of the abdominal (belly) wall. The baby's intestines stick outside of the baby's body, through a hole beside the belly button. The hole can be small or large and sometimes other organs, such as the stomach and liver, can also stick outside of the baby's body

80

how is the rectus sheath formed?

The rectus sheath is formed by the aponeuroses of the transverse abdominal and the external and internal oblique muscles. It contains the rectus abdominis and pyramidalis muscles. It can be divided into anterior and posterior laminae.

81

progression of testes:

I saw perry, and he had a transvestite face, and I didn't want to see his trans abs, but he said it made him look externally how he felt internally

82

Spermatic cord contents

"Piles Don't Contribute To A Good Sex Life":
Pampiniform plexus
Ductus deferens
Cremasteric artery
Testicular artery
Artery of the ductus deferens
Genital branch of the genitofemoral nerve
Sympathetic nerve fibers
Lymphatic vessels
Knowledge Level 2, System: Reproductive
TR Columbia PandS