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Flashcards in Perault_Stomach_Abdominal Cavity Deck (58):
1

Organs of the forgut

Golly*, A Dust-E Duo of Pan* Seared Liver* and Stomach

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Organs of the Midgut:

Transvestite DJ CeCe Ileum Appetite Ascending
transverse colon, duodenum, jejunum, cecum, ileum, appendix, ascending colon

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Organs of the Hindgut:

and now the Transvestites will Descend and Sign your Rectum
transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, rectum

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organs that secrete juices into the ailamentary canal

salivary glands, stomach, pancreas, liver and small intestine

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the peritoneum:

It covers most of the intra-abdominal (or coelomic) organs, and is composed of a layer of mesothelium supported by a thin layer of connective tissue. The peritoneum supports the abdominal organs and serves as a conduit for their blood vessels, lymph vessels, and nerves.

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ditinguish between the portal and vena cava system

The portal vein or hepatic portal vein is a blood vessel that carries blood from the gastrointestinal tract and spleen to the liver.

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greater omentum

is a large apron-like fold of visceral peritoneum that hangs down from the stomach. It extends from the greater curvature of the stomach, passing in front of the small intestines and doubles back to ascend to the transverse colon before reaching to the posterior abdominal wall.

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functions of the greater omentum

Fat deposition, having varying amounts of adipose tissue[6]
Immune contribution, having milky spots of macrophage collections[6]
Infection and wound isolation; It may also physically limit the spread of intraperitoneal infections.[6] The greater omentum can often be found wrapped around areas of infection and trauma.

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lesser omentum:

the double layer of peritoneum that extends from the liver to the lesser curvature of the stomach (hepatogastric ligament) and the first part of the duodenum (hepatoduodenal ligament).The lesser omentum is extremely thin, and is continuous with the two layers of peritoneum which cover respectively the antero-superior and postero-inferior surfaces of the stomach and first part of the duodenum.

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mesentary proper

the small intestine is a large and broad fan-shaped mesentery that is attached to the jejunum and ileum of the small intestine, connecting them to the posterior abdominal wall.

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transverse mesocolon

The transverse mesocolon is a broad, meso-fold of peritoneum, which connects the transverse colon to the posterior wall of the abdomen.

It is continuous with the two posterior layers of the greater omentum, which, after separating to surround the transverse colon, join behind it, and are continued backward to the vertebral column, where they diverge in front of the anterior border of the pancreas. This fold contains between its layers the vessels which supply the transverse colon.

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sigmoid mesocolon

The sigmoid mesocolon is a fold of peritoneum that attaches the sigmoid colon to the pelvic wall and one of the four mesenteries in the abdominal cavity.

It has an "inverted V" line of attachment, the apex of which is near the division of the left common iliac artery. The left limb descends medially to the left psoas muscle; the right limb descends into the pelvis and ends in the midline anterior to the third sacral segment. The sigmoid and superior rectal vessels run between the layers of the sigmoid mesocolon and the left ureter descends into the pelvis behind its apex.

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peritoneal ligaments of the spleen

Gastrosplenic ligament
It is the fold of peritoneum that connects spleen with greater curvature of stomach.

Splenorenal/lienorenal ligament
It is the fold of peritoneum that connects spleen to the left kidney.

These two ligaments are attached to the hilum of spleen. Splenorenal ligament carries splenic vessels and sometimes tail of pancreas.

Phrenicocolic ligament
It is attached to the left colic flexure (colon) and diaphragm. This ligament supports the spleen from below.

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peritoneal ligaments of the liver:

Falciform ligament, Ligamentum teres, Ligamentum venosum, Lesser omentum

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falciform ligament:

This two layered fold of peritoneum ascends from the umbilicus to the liver. It has a sickle shaped free margin containing the ligamentum teres, which represents the remains of umbilical vein.

The falciform ligament passes to the anterior and superior surfaces of the liver and eventually splits into two layers: right and left. The right layer forms the upper layer of the coronary ligament, while the left layer forms the upper layer of the left triangular ligament. The description could be made easy by considering the fact that the tip of the coronary ligament is known as the right triangular ligament. Between the peritoneal layers forming the coronary ligament lies the so called bare area.

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Ligamentum teres:

As described above, this ligament represents the remains of the umbilical vein of fetus. It passes into a fissure on the visceral surface of liver and joins the left branch of portal vein in the porta hepatis.

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Ligamentum venosum:

It represents the remains of the ductus venosus of fetus and is attached to the left branch of the portal vein. It ascends in a fissure on the visceral surface of liver to be attached above to the inferior vena cava.

To make the description more understandable, the knowledge of functions of umbilical vein and ductus venosus is important. In brief, the umbilical vein (represented by ligamentum teres) brings oxygenated blood to the liver from placenta in the fetus. The greater portion of this blood bypasses the liver through the ductus venosus (represented by the ligamentum venosum), which joins the inferior vena cava.

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Lesser omentum:

In addition to the above peritoneal ligaments, the lesser omentum is also attached to the liver. It arises from the edges of the porta hepatis and the fissure for ligamentum venosum. Afterwards, it passes down to the lesser curvature of the stomach.

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major organs of the GI tract:

the hollow organs that make up the GI tract are the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine—which includes the rectum—and anus. Food enters the mouth and passes to the anus through the hollow organs of the GI tract. The liver, pancreas, and gallbladder are the solid organs of the digestive system.

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organs of the upper GI:

The upper gastrointestinal tract consists of the buccal cavity, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, and duodenum

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demarcation of end of upper GI

The exact demarcation between the upper and lower tracts is the suspensory muscle of the duodenum. This delineates the embryonic borders between the foregut and midgut, and is also the division commonly used by clinicians to describe gastrointestinal bleeding as being of either "upper" or "lower" origin

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_____ is the anatomical landmark which shows the formal division between the duodenum and the jejunum

The suspensory muscle is an important anatomical landmark which shows the formal division between the duodenum and the jejunum

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organs of the lower GI:

The lower gastrointestinal tract includes most of the small intestine and all of the large intestine.[8] In human anatomy, the intestine (bowel, or gut) is the segment of the gastrointestinal tract extending from the pyloric sphincter of the stomach to the anus and, in humans and other mammals, consists of two segments, the small intestine and the large intestine.

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divisions of the lower GI tract:

In humans, the small intestine is further subdivided into the duodenum, jejunum and ileum while the large intestine is subdivided into the cecum, colon, rectum, and anal canal.[9][10]

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small intestine:

The small intestine begins at the duodenum, which receives food from the stomach. It is a tubular structure, usually between 6 and 7 m long.[11] The area of the human, adult small intestinal mucosa is about 30 m2.[12] Its main function is to absorb the products of digestion (including carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and vitamins) into the bloodstream. It has three major divisions:

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first division of the SI:

Duodenum: A short structure (about 20–25 cm long[11]) which receives chyme from the stomach, together with pancreatic juice containing digestive enzymes and bile from the gall bladder. The digestive enzymes break down proteins, and bile emulsifies fats into micelles. The duodenum contains Brunner's glands, which produce a mucus-rich alkaline secretion containing bicarbonate. These secretions, in combination with bicarbonate from the pancreas, neutralizes the stomach acids contained in the chyme.

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2nd division of the SI:

Jejunum: This is the midsection of the small intestine, connecting the duodenum to the ileum. It is about 2.5 m long, and contains the circular folds, and villi that increase its surface area. Products of digestion (sugars, amino acids, and fatty acids) are absorbed into the bloodstream here.

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3rd division of the SI:

Ileum: The final section of the small intestine. It is about 3 m long, and contains villi similar to the jejunum. It absorbs mainly vitamin B12 and bile acids, as well as any other remaining nutrients.

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divisions of the large intestine:

Cecum (first portion of the colon) and appendix
Ascending colon (ascending in the back wall of the abdomen)
Right colic flexure (flexed portion of the ascending and transverse colon apparent to the liver)
Transverse colon (passing below the diaphragm)
Left colic flexure (flexed portion of the transverse and descending colon apparent to the spleen
Descending colon (descending down the left side of the abdomen)
Sigmoid colon (a loop of the colon closest to the rectum)
Rectum
Anus

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esophogus:

is an organ in vertebrates through which food passes, aided by peristaltic contractions, from the pharynx to the stomach. The esophagus is a fibromuscular tube, about 25 centimetres long in adults, which travels behind the trachea and heart, passes through the diaphragm and empties into the uppermost region of the stomach. During swallowing the epiglottis tilts backwards to prevent food from going down the larynx and lungs

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location of the stomach:

The stomach lies between the esophagus and the duodenum (the first part of the small intestine). It is in the left upper part of the abdominal cavity. The top of the stomach lies against the diaphragm. Lying behind the stomach is the pancreas. A large double fold of visceral peritoneum called the greater omentum hangs down from the greater curvature of the stomach.

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pancreas:

In humans, it is located in the abdominal cavity behind the stomach. It is an endocrine gland producing several important hormones, including insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, and pancreatic polypeptide which circulate in the blood. The pancreas is also a digestive organ, secreting pancreatic juice containing digestive enzymes that assist digestion and absorption of nutrients in the small intestine. These enzymes help to further break down the carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids in the chyme.

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gallbladder

is a small organ where bile (a fluid produced by the liver) is stored and concentrated before it is released into the small intestine. Humans can live without a gallbladder. The surgical removal of the gallbladder is called a cholecystectomy.

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spleen:

Similar in structure to a large lymph node, it acts primarily as a blood filter. The spleen plays important roles in regard to red blood cells (also referred to as erythrocytes) and the immune system.[2] It removes old red blood cells and holds a reserve of blood, which can be valuable in case of hemorrhagic shock, and also recycles iron. As a part of the mononuclear phagocyte system, it metabolizes hemoglobin removed from senescent erythrocytes. The globin portion of hemoglobin is degraded to its constitutive amino acids, and the heme portion is metabolized to bilirubin, which is removed in the liver.[3]

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lymph drainage of the abdomen

The celiac lymph nodes are associated with the branches of the celiac artery. Other lymph nodes in the abdomen are associated with the superior and inferior mesenteric arteries. The celiac lymph nodes are grouped into three sets: the gastric, hepatic and splenic lymph nodes.

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foregut organs

esophagus, stomach, proximal duodenum, liver, pancreas, spleen foregut organs

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foregut arterial supply

celiac artery

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foregut sympathetic innervation

R and L greater splanchnic

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foregut, midgut parasympathetic innervation

Vagus

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midgut organs

2-4th parts of duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, appendix, ascending colon, proximal 2/3 of transverse colon

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midgut blood supply

superior mesenteric artery

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midgut sympathetic innervation

R and L lesser splanchnic nerves

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foregut ganglion

celiac ganglion

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foregut lymphatic drainage

celiac lymph nodes

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midgut lymph drainage

superior mesenteric lymph nodes

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hindgut arterial supply

inferior mesenteric artery

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hindgut sympathetic innervation

R and L least splanchnic nerves, R and L lumbar splanchnics

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sympathetic to the proximal anal canal

R and L sacral splanchnics

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hindgut ganglion

superior hypogastric and inferior mesenteric ganglion

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midgut ganglion

superior mesenteric and aorticorenal ganglion

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ganglion to proximal anal canal

inferior hypogastric ganglion

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hindgut parasympathetic innervation

R and L pelvic splanchnic nerves

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Define mesentary:

Mesenteries are a double layer of peritoneum in the abdominal cavity and is a continuation of the visceral and parietal peritoneum with the serous membranes adhered back to back so that the outer mesothelium secretes serous fluid into the peritoneal cavity. This decreases the friction between the adjacent visceral surfaces and allows some movement of the organs that occur during digestion. A thin layer of connective tissue is contained within the two layers of peritoneum and provides a passageway for lymphatics, nerves, arteries and veins to reach the viscera, allowing communication between the body wall and internal organs. Mesenteries are also important as they suspend or hold the organs in place to the posterior abdominal wall.

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connective tissue that holds liver in place?

The falciform ligament is a ligament that attaches the liver to the anterior (ventral) body wall. It is a broad and thin antero-posterior peritoneal fold, falciform (Latin "sickle-shaped"), its base being directed downward and backward and its apex upward and backward.

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coronary ligaments:

The coronary ligament of the liver refers to parts of the peritoneal reflections that hold the liver to the inferior surface of the diaphragm.

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hepatic ligaments:

The hepatogastric ligament or gastrohepatic ligament connects the liver to the lesser curvature of the stomach. It contains the right and the left gastric arteries. In the abdominal cavity it separates the greater and lesser sacs on the right. It is sometimes cut during surgery, in order to access the lesser sac. The hepatogastric ligament consists of a dense cranial portion and the caudal portion termed the pars flaccida.

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hepatoduodenal ligament:

The hepatoduodenal ligament is the portion of the lesser omentum extending between the porta hepatis of the liver and the superior part of the duodenum.

Running inside it are the following structures collectively known as the portal triad:[1]

hepatic artery proper
portal vein
common bile duct

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inferior mesenteric:

Inferior is less

LESS:

L- Left colic
E- Eliminate (meaning nothing)
S- Sigmoid
S- Superior rectal