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Flashcards in Human Development Deck (58):
1

embryonic period

end of week 3 through week 8, most important time of pregnancy for birth, developmental defects; after week 8 everything just grows in size

2

fetal period

end of week 8 through week 38

3

Gastrulation

is a phase early in the embryonic development of most animals, during which the single-layered blastula is reorganized into a trilaminar ("three-layered") structure known as the gastrula. These three germ layers are known as the ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm.

4

primitive streak

The primitive streak is a structure that forms in the blastula during the early stages of avian, reptilian and mammalian embryonic development. It forms on the dorsal (back) face of the developing embryo, toward the caudal or posterior end.

5

amniotic cavity

is the closed sac between the embryo and the amnion, containing the amniotic fluid. The amniotic cavity is formed by the fusion of the parts of the amniotic fold, which first makes its appearance at the cephalic extremity, and subsequently at the caudal end and sides of the embryo.

6

yolk sac

yolk sac is the first element seen in the gestational sac during pregnancy, usually at 3 days gestation. Identification of the gestational sac is a critical landmark in monitoring an early pregnancy, and can be reliably seen in human pregnancy using ultrasound.

7

primitive knot

is an enlarged group of cells located in the anterior portion of the primitive streak in a developing gastrula.

8

fertilization takes place (ideally) in...

the ampula of the uterine tube at which it will be unarrested from metaphase II

9

mitotic division that the fertilized egg undergos is called:

cleavage

10

insitio tropho blast

invades tissue of endometrium

11

after hatching from zona pallucida, the trophoblast differentiates into 2 distinct layers:

insitio trophoblast, and cytotrophoblast

12

gastrulation:

point at which we have 3 main stages: ectoderm, endoderm, mesoderm

13

The floor of the amniotic cavity is formed by the ______disc composed of a layer of prismatic cells, the embryonic ectoderm, derived from the inner cell-mass and lying in apposition with the endoderm.

embryonic

14

the embryonic disk is derived from

the epiblast layer, which lies between the hypoblast layer and the amnion. The epiblast layer is derived from the inner cell mass. Through the process of gastrulation, the bilaminar embryonic disc becomes trilaminar. The notochord forms thereafter. Through the process of neurulation, the notochord induces the formation of the neural tube in the embryonic disc

15

The amnion is:

The amnion is a membrane that closely covers the embryo when first formed. It fills with the amniotic fluid which causes the amnion to expand and become the amniotic sac which serves to provide a protective environment for the developing embryo

16

The ________ is a tissue type that forms from the inner cell mass. It lies beneath the epiblast and consists of small cuboidal cells. Extraembryonic endoderm (including Yolk sac) is derived from hypoblast cells.

hypoblast

17

the tri-laminar embryo is the stage at which:

there are 3 distinct germ layers:
ectoderm
mesoderm
endoderm

18

ectoderm layer will become:

skin, epidermis, CNS, give rise to neural crest cells, teeth, eyes

19

mesoderm layer will become:

muscles, notocord, skeletal components, RBC, cartilage, bones

20

endoderm gives rise to:

most organs on inner cavity: hearing GI, pulmonary, urination, breathing

21

before gastrulation, the bilayer pancake consists of :

epiblast (dorsal) and hypoblast (ventral)

22

the hypoblast is the first layer pushed out of the way and it is removed by:

epiblast cells migration

23

after being in a bilayer formation, the cells that move to form the notocord are called the:

axial mesoderm

24

the cells of a bilayer formation that move to form the area next to the notocord and form the somites

paraxial mesoderm

25

cells of a bilayer that spread out laterally to make a large, flat pancake-like surface are called the

lateral mesoderm

26

hypoblast delaminates and forms the:

primary yolk-sac

27

the chorionic cavity:

The chorionic cavity is enclosed by the chorionic plate, which is composed of an inner layer of somatopleuric mesoderm and an outer layer of trophoblast cells.

28

notocord arises from the:

mesoderm

29

neural crest and neural tube arise from the

ectoderm

30

first forms the neurol _____ then the neural ______ the neural ______

fold, groove, tube

31

after the formation of the neural tube, the _______ appear

somites

32

septum transversum

grows up out of the mesoderm, forms the border between the pericardial and peritoneal cavities, divides the thorax and abdomen: just above liver, just below heart (constitutes much of the diaphram)

33

septum transversum originates from C3-C5 and will be innervated by

c4 cut c4, breath no more

34

pluera peritoneal merges with transverse septum and _____

pericardial pluera

35

Pluera peritoneum is the:

abdominal cavity

36

endoderm and mesoderm come together to

ind-ian food: splanchnopluera

37

ectoderm and mesoderm:

somatopleura (tomato and meso)

38

intraembryonic ceolum gives rise to:

the thoracic and abdominal (perotonium) cavities

39

70% of the diaphram comes from the

septum transversus

40

the transverse septum arises:

ventral side of embryo to the posterior side of the embryo,

41

when septum tranverses stops, you have formed the

interembryonic coelum

42

pluera peritoneal membrane meets with the ______ as it grows from the ______ to the ______

septum transversus, posterior to the ventral side

43

the septum transversus and pleura peritoneal form:

the pericardial peritoneal cavity

44

pluera pericardial fold is a _______ division

verticala

45

4 stages of lung development:

"sue can suck air"
Pseudoglandular – branching of bronchial tubes
Canalicular – lumen increases
Saccular – alveolar capillaries develop, surfactant is produced
Alveolar – increase in the number of alveoli with the growth in lungs during the first 8 postnatal years

46

lateral plate mesoderm gives rise to the;

splanchnic, somatic, extraembryonic

47

fertilization usually takes place in the:

ampulla of the uterine tube

48

ectoderm folds to form the neural ___ and ____:

crest/tube

49

the neural crest will go on to form the _____

PNS (opposite of CNS)

50

The neural tube will go on to form the ______

CNS

51

caudel region of neural tube will be:

spinal cord

52

cranial region of neural tube will be:

cerebellum

53

the neural plate is made up of the _______ layer and will eventually become the:

ectoderm, neural plate

54

the neural crest is made up of the _____ layer and will eventually become the:

PNS

55

the somites are originally _____ tissue and will eventually become _____

paraxial mesodermal tissue, schlerotome, dermatome, or myotomes

56

spina biffida

somites didn't correctly form the structures around tube, or the tube on the caudal end didn't close

57

______ is a thin but tough sac that surrounds the developing embryo

amnion

58

the ____ is a thin but tough sac that surrounds the amnion

corion