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Flashcards in Respiratory Deck (46):
1

Upper Respiratory Tract

sphenoidal SinusFrontal SinusNasal CavityPharynx

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Lower Respiratory Tract

LarynxTracheaBronchiLungs

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Inside Lungs

Bronchiole RespiratoryBronchioleAlveolar ductAlveoli

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Olfactory Epithelium

Non-motile cBipolar neuron (one dendrite and one axon)Middle of the epitheliumilia chemoreceptor

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Olfactory Epithelium supporting cells

Columnar

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Olfactory Epithelium Basal cells

Small and spherical cells Stem cells for both olfactory neurons and supporting cells

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Nasal Cavity Respiratory Epithelium

Ciliated columnar cellsNumerousGoblet cellsBasal nucleiBrush cellsChemosensory receptorsSmall granule cellsNeuroendocrine systemBasal cellsMitotically active stem cells that can give rise to the other epithelial cells

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Upper Respiratory Tract

Sphenoid SinusFrontal SinusNasal CavityPharynx

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Layers of Nasal Cavity

Olfactory EpitheliumLamina PropriaCribriform Plate

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Above Nasal Cavity (from olfactory epithelium through Cribriform Plate:

Olfactory Bulb

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Parts of Olfactory bulb:

Mitral Cells, Glomeuli

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Olfactory epithelium contains:

Bipolar neurons (1 axon, 1 dendrite), non motile cilia chemoreceptors, columnar supporting cells, basal cells

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The Nasal Epithelium contains:

Ciliated columnar cellsNumerousGoblet cellsBasal nucleiBrush cellsChemosensory receptorsSmall granule cellsNeuroendocrine systemBasal cellsMitotically active stem cells that can give rise to the other epithelial cells

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layers of the trachea

Mucosa(Ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium lamina proprea) and Submucosa GlandsMyoepithelial cellElastic fibersLymphoid tissueTrachealis muscle)CartilageAdventitia

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Characteristics of Mucosa:

Ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium)

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submucosa

GlandsMyoepithelial cellElastic fibersLymphoid tissueTrachealis muscle (myoepithelial cells are on the outside of secretory granule cells)

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Conducting portion of lung anatomy

primary bronchiole, 2ndary, tertiary, bronchioles, terminal bronchi

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respiratory portion of lung anatomy

respiratory bronchioles, alviolar sacs, lobule

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primary bronchiole enters each:

lung

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secondary bronchiole enters each:

lobe

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tertiary bronchiole enters each:

segment

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bronchioles enter each:

lobule

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large bronchus:

Layers are similar to trachea and primary bronchus.Isolated plates of hyaline cartilageAbundance of glandsSmooth muscle bundles and elastic fibers are more prominent in smaller bronchi.

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bronchioles

No cartilageFewer glandsMore SMC and Elastic fibersMore SMC

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terminal bronchioles

Ciliated cuboidal epitheliumSMC and elastic fibersGlandsClara cells (C, “club” cells)Non-ciliated and dome-shapedSecretion of surfactant-like substanceIn the mucosa lining

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terminal bronchiole vs respiratory bronchiole

Respiratory bronchiole is very similar to terminal bronchiole, except for the presence of numerous alveoli along its length.Alveolar ducts branch off respiratory bronchiole and lead to an alveolar sac.

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pulmonary vasculature:

Pulmonary arterioles are closer to the airway (blue). Why? (Is the blood in PA O2-rich or O2-poor?)Pulmonary venules (red)are more in the parenchyma of the lungs, away from the airway

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amount of cartilage (most-less)

Trachea, bronchi 1-3, bronchioles, respiratory bronchioles, alveoli ducts, alveoli sacs

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ratio of smooth muscle to cartilage (least-most)

Trachea, bronchi 1-3, bronchioles, respiratory bronchioles, alveoli ducts, alveoli sacs

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epithelium of trachea:

pseudo-stratified columnar

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layers of trachea:

Muc, submuc, cart, adventitia

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other cells of trachea:

goblet cells, basal cells

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epithelium/layers of bronchi 1-3

similar to trachea (pseudo-stratified columnar, mucosa, muscularis, submucosa, cartilage, adventitia

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epithelium of bronchioles

Ciliated pseudo-stratified to ciliated simple columnarSimple cuboidal

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layers of bronchioles;

mucousa, muscularis, submucosa adventitia

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other cells of bronchioles

Clara (club) cells (terminal bronchioles and respiratory bronchioles)

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epithelium of respiratory bronchioles

ciliated simple cuboidal

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layers of respiratory bronchioles:

mucosa, muscularis, submucosa, adventitia

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alveoli ducts:

Simple cuboidal to squamous

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layers of alveoli ducts:

mucosa submucosa

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alveoli sacs

simple squamous

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layers of alveoli sacs

mucosa submucosa

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3 types of cells in lungs;

simple squamous, septal cells (cuboidal) to produce surfactant (reduce surface tension), macrophage (biggest cell)

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what is surfactant and how is it produced?

Surfactant is to reduce the adhesiveness of water molecules to the alveolar membrane, thus reducing surface tensionproduced by septal cells (cuboidal)

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what systems are involved in the gas exchange in the alveoli?

Conducting zone: Air conductionAlveoli: Gas exchangeCirculatory system: CirculationRBC: O2/CO2

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myoepithelial cells

move-yo-epithelilal cells (cells lining lumin of ducts in exocrine glands,