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Flashcards in Connective Tissue Deck (71):
1

connective tissue....

transport material (blood), structure (bone), no contact with environment

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characteristics

Usually are rich in blood supply, with a few exceptions, such as cartilages, tendons and ligaments.
Are made of many types of cells
There is a great deal of non-cellular, nonliving materials (extracellular matrix)between the cells of connective tissues.
Ground substance: Interstitial fluid, cell adhesion proteins and proteoglycans.
Fibers: Collagen, elastic and reticular fibers

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3 classifications

proper, fluid, supportive

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connective tissue proper:

A Mad Mother Made Me Miss Last Friday's Fun
Adipose, mesynchimal, melanocyte, macrophage, microphage, mast cells, lymphocyte, fibrocyte, fibroblasts

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fibroblasts

The most abundant cell type:
found in all connective tissue proper
secrete proteins and hyaluronan (cellular cement)
The mitotic activity can be regulated by growth factor when tissue needs more fibroblast, e.g. organ injury

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Macrophages are

Large, amoeba-like cells of the immune system:
eat pathogens and damaged cells (by phagocytosis)
fixed macrophages stay in tissue
free macrophages migrate

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macrophages can be either _____ or _____

fixed or free

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melanocytes

synthesize and store melanin

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mast cells originate from

bone marrow

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lymphocytes

T, B natural killer specific

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microphages

phagocytic blood cells

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microphages participate in

non-specific immunity

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Number of Connective tissue Fibers:

3 types; collagen, elastic, reticular

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collagen is the

Most abundant in human body
Major product of fibroblasts
Fibrillar collagens (I and II), sheet-forming collagens (IV) and linking/anchoring collagens (VII)

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collagen fibers are

long straight and unbranched (Strong and flexible)

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examples of collagen fibers:

tendons, ligaments, parts of bones and blood vessels

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Elastic Fibers

Branched, wavy, elastin fibers, returns to original length after stretching, formed by fibroblasts
Branched and wavy
Return to original length after stretching
For example, elastic ligaments of vertebrae

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reticular fibers

forms networks produced by fibroblasts, thin, needs special stain to be visible, supportive stoma
Produced by fibroblasts
Form networks
Thin
Needs special stain to be visible
Supportive stroma (supportive network)
Parenchyma: Functional part of the organs.
E.g. found in spleen and lymph nodes

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stroma or parenchyma

supportive and functional part of organs

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reticular fibers are usually found in:

collagen III in lymph nodes

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connective tissue proper is:

loose or dense

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loose connective tissue is more____ less_____

ground, fibers (i.e. fat)

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Dense connective more_____ less_____

fibers ground substance

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3 types of Loose

Areolar, Adipose, Reticular

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Areolar characteristics

more ground, less fiber, distort without damage elastic fiber
Underneath the epithelium of the skin (papillary layer only)

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Epidermis layer, tissue

stratified squamous, epithelium

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dermis layers:

papillary, reticular

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adipose tissue

contains adipocytes
Subcutaneous and around organs

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2 types of adipose tissue

white (most common, stores fat, absorbs shock, slows heat loss), Brown more vascularized, ....

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adipocytes do not:

divide, they expand to store fat, shrink as fat is released

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mesenchymal cells divide and differentiate

produce more fat cells, when storage is needed

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adipocytes only have

1 nucleus

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Reticular Tissue found in

liver, kidney, spleen, lymph nodes, bone marrow
Fibrous network to support parenchymal cells (vs. stroma)
Liver, spleen, bone marrow, and lymph nodes

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Dense connective tissue contains more_____ less_____

fibers, ground

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Dense means _____ regular means _____

tightly packs, parallel collagen fibers

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Dense irregular found in

deep dermis

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dense irregular connective tissue is found in the ____ made of _____ layer

dermis, reticular layer

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main function of fluid connective tissue

transport

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fluid connective tissue examples

blood, lymph, interstitial fluid

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Blood divisions

plasma, formed elements, platelets

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Types of formed elements in blood

rbc, never let monkeys eat bananas

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lymph is____

extracellular fluid collected from interstitial space

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fluid tissue transport system

cardiovascular system (blood), lymphoid (lymphatic)

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interstitial fluid is fluid____

outside blood vessel and lymphatic vessel

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supportive connective tissues contains____ and ____

cartilage and bone

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cartilage is a ______ for _____

gel-type ground substance

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cartilage has no _______

vascularity

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chondrocytes

produce anti-angiogenesis factor

49

Wrapping on cartilage

perichondrium

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types of cartilage

hyaline, elastic, fibrous

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hyaline caritilage contain

chondrycytes

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elastic carilage examples

ears, epiglottis

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fibrocartilage

chondrocytes and lots of fibers (spinal column), knees, in between spinal discs

54

bone tissue is called:

osseous tissue
Strong (calcified: calcium salt deposits)
Resists shattering (flexible collagen fibers)
Bone cells or osteocytes
Arranged around central canals within matrix
Small channels through matrix (canaliculi) access blood supply
Periosteum
Covers bone surfaces
Fibrous layer
Cellular layer

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3 types of fluid connective tissue

blood, lymph, interstitial fluid

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types of supportive connective tissue

bone and cartilage

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types of cartilage

hyaline, elastic, fibrous:
Hyaline cartilage
Stiff, flexible support
Reduces friction between bones
Found in synovial joints, rib tips, sternum, and trachea
Elastic cartilage
Supportive but bends easily
Found in external ear and epiglottis
Fibrous cartilage (fibrocartilage)
Limits movement
Prevents bone-to-bone contact
Pads knee joints
Found between pubic bones and intervertebral discs

58

Fibrocytes

The second most abundant cell type:
found in all connective tissue proper
Maintain the fibers of connective tissue proper
The “quieter” cell than the fibroblasts.

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adipocytes

Fat cells:
each cell stores a single, large fat droplet with a nucleus on the side

60

Mesenchymal Cells

Stem cells that differentiate into fibroblasts, macrophages, etc.

61

Mast Cells

Originate from bone marrow.
Progenitor cells circulate in blood.
Stays in tissue
Stimulate inflammation after injury or infection:
release histamine and heparin

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Lymphocytes

Specialized immune cells in lymphoid (lymphatic) system:
For example, B lymphocytes may develop into plasma cells (plasmocytes) that produce antibodies

63

Macrophages

Phagocytic blood cells:
Participate in non-specific immunity.
For example, neutrophils and eosinophils

64

Fibrillar collagens (I and II) examples:

bone, skin, tendon; cartilage

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Fibrillar collagen III

skin, muscle blood vessel

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Fibrillar collagen IV

basal and external lamina

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brown adipose

more vascularized
adipocytes have many mitochondria
when stimulated by nervous system, fat break down accelerates, releasing energy
absorbs energy from surrounding tissues
Found in infants and young children

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white adipose

most common
stores fat
absorbs shocks
slows heat loss (insulation)

69

3 types of fibers

reticular, elastin, collagen

70

9 types of connective tissue proper

a mad mother made me miss last friday's fun

71

Blood consists of:

Plasma
Water
Proteins, electrolytes, etc.
Formed elements
RBC
WBC- never let monkeys eat bananas

Neutrophil
Lymphocyte
Monocyte
Eosinophil
Basophil
Platelets