Ebryology Flashcards Preview

JK Hu A&P > Ebryology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ebryology Deck (64):
1

p arm

smaller top arm

2

q arm

lower, larger arm

3

chromosomes held together by

centrosomes

4

number of autosomes

22

5

all somatic cells have the cell cycle:

G1,S,G2 Mitosis, cytokinesis, G0

6

mitosis phases

pmat

7

gametogenesis

spermatozoa, oocyte

8

gaemtogensis does not make ____ it makes ____

diploid cells, haploid

9

manifestations of an irregular karyotype

trisomy 21: crease on hand, sloped forehead, etc
trisomy 13 (not viable)
monosomy "turner's syndrome" wet neck, short, cardiovascular disease, synthetically provide hormones

10

structural malformations

parts of chromosome to be missing, deformed:
cri-du-chat, angelman syndrome, prader-will syndrome

11

nearly ___ of congenital malformations are due to unknown causes

50%

12

all somatic cells are ______

diploid (2n)

13

______ phases of gamete formation

origin and migration,

14

______ phase of germ cells is the same

migration or origin, proliferation of germ cells through mitosis

15

phase 1

origin and migration of germ cells

16

phase 2

proliferation of germ cells through mitosis (puberty for men, first 5 months of development for women)

17

follicle is made of

prophase and epithelium combined to surround oocyte (primary oocyte)

18

meiotic event in ovum for priomordial follicle

primary oocyte

19

final step of meiosis is not complete until

conception

20

Hormonal Control of Ovulation

GnRH, FSH, LH

21

GnRH is released from

Hypothalamus

22

GnRH acts on the

Anterior pituitary

23

ANt pit secretes

FSH, LH

24

Corpus luteum secretes

progesterone

25

spermatogensis located in

seminiferous tubule

26

smallest cell in body

sperm

27

acrosome is made by shifting

golgi apparatus to head

28

increases in LH stimulates

Laydig cells to

29

fertilization occurs in the ____ or the uterine tube

ampulla

30

Capacitation

to fully mature, the sperm need to live in the uterus, to dissolve acrosome, and utilize mitochondria

31

requires approx _____ for capacitation

5-7 hours

32

corona radiata was originally

granulosa cite

33

acrosome reaction

spermatozoa penetrate the corona radiata and zona pellucida

34

prevention of polyspermy

automatically depolarizes cell wall

35

polyspermy is prevented by an influx of

Ca2+

36

cleavage

4 days until morula

37

individual cells called

blastomeres

38

____of structure doesn't increase, only the _____

size, number

39

zona palucida is a ____ shell

hard (Calcified)

40

from morula to blastula

compaction, differentiation, cavitation

41

blastocyst formation includes the formation of _____

sodium potassium pumps

42

inner cell mass structures become___

embryo

43

RNA in zygote is originally__

all maternal

44

Maternal-Zygotic transition causes a _______ in RNA

drop

45

Pluripotent cell example:

Inner mass cells

46

Totipotent cell example:

morula

47

AS cells are either ____ or ______

multipotent or unipotent

48

Day 6-7 the zygote;

breaks out of shell and embeds in uterine wall

49

implantation includes the

trophoblast begins to penetrate between the epithelial cells of the uterine mucosa

50

when does pregnancy begin?

implantation, also no longer capable of bein totipotent

51

all three germ layers are made of ______ and push the ____ out of the way

epiblast hypoblast

52

the _____ is formed by the mesoderm cells

notochord

53

the notochord is formed by the ______ migrating through the ________

mesoderm/primitive node

54

ectoderm

surface ectoderm; neuroectoderm

55

prosencephalon

3

56

mesencephalon

4

57

rhombencephalon

5

58

somite organization

basis of forming axial skeleton

59

segmentation is conserved by _______ genes

HOX genes (allow the body to be segmented in the appropriate way)

60

placenta

chorion

61

primary stem villus

11 to 13 days as cytotrophoblastic proliferations that bud into the overlying ; cytotrophoblast and syncytiotrophoblast

62

secondary stem villus

day 16 the extraembryonic mesoderm begins to proliferate

63

3 phases of human development

germinal embryonic, fetal

64

phase in which fetus is most susceptible to .....

embryonic