Hu_Digestive System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Hu_Digestive System Deck (116):
1

layers of the digestive system

Mucosa Submucosa Muscularis circular layer, myenteric plexus, longitudinal layer) Serosa (visceral peritoneum)

2

why do we need muscularis mucosa?

squeeze mucosal glands

3

nerve innervation for GI tract:

submucosal (in submucosal) and mesentric plexus

4

submucosal plexus innervates:

gland stimulation

5

mesenteric plexus innervates:

smooth muscle contraction

6

mucosa muscularis:

smooth muscle that causes gland secretion

7

muscularis externa:

smooth muscle that causes peristalsis

8

unique characteristic of stomach epithelium

gastric pit

9

layers of stomach cells

mucosa, lamina propria, muscularis mucosa, submucosa,oblique muscle, circular muscle, longitudinal muscle, serosa

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gastric glands

parietal cells, smooth muscle cell, g cell and chief cells

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gastric pit

lamina propria, mucous cells, neck

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mucous cells produce:

HCO3 alkaline

13

Parietal cells secrete:

HCL Intrinsic Factor

14

G Cells produce

gastrin

15

Chief Cells produce:

Proenzyme

16

Gastric Glands:

mostly exocrine, at the bottom of pit there are some endocrine

17

The cells that look like fried eggs:

Parietal cells

18

intrinsic factor helps to facilitate:

absorption of Vit B12

19

Parietal cells help to facillitate:

intrinsic factor that helps in absorption of B12

20

H+ and Cl-and transport from ____ to the stomach lumen independently

H+ Cl-

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Deficient Parietal cells may result in:

enemia

22

chief cells stain _____

stain purple

23

Chief cells stimulate:

parietal, chief, smooth muscle cells contraction

24

how does the stomach digest food:

acid, enzyme, mechanical force

25

duodenum:

main place of digestive regulation

26

3 functions of duodenum:

receive chyme, neutralize stomach acid, regulate GI tract hormones

27

duodenum has _____ plicae than small intestine?

smaller, fewer

28

brunners glands are located in the _____ of the _______

submucosa duodenum

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brunners glands secrete:

HCO3

30

brunners glands are more abundant in the
_________ region (proximal/distal)

distal (proximal is most acidic and so the basic glands work to neutralize the acid)

31

bunners glands are located in the _______ region (mucosa submucosa, muscle, etc)

submucosa

32

liver is made up of _______ that are ______ in shape

lobules, hexagon

33

the lobules of the liver contain a ________ in the middle and have six triad areas:

central vein, portal vein, hepatic artery bile duct

34

ducts are lined with:

simple cuboidal cells

35

each of the triad areas contain a triad of lumen, you can tell the arteries and veins apart by the _______

epithelium tissue (ducts are simple cuboidal, arteries and veins are simple squamous)

36

cells of the liver lobules:

hepatocytes, and kupffer

37

hepatocytes, kupffer

lined like wheels along central vein; immunity cells (antigen presenting)

38

everything you eat gets moved to the liver through _______ except the dietary lipids

portal vein

39

liver processes and digests food, and the oxygen is supplied via:

1/3 hepatic artery, 2/3 portal vein

40

the hepatic artery supplies _______ blood to the liver while the portal vein supplies _______ blood

oxygenated, deoxygenated

41

the blood of the hepatic artery and portal vein meet in the _________

liver sinusoid or sinusoidal blood vessel

42

the _____ of the liver are lined with ______

sinusoid, hepatocytes

43

among the content of the sinusoids of the liver, they are lined with ______ and contain ______

hepatocytes, macrophages

44

the blood flow of the liver:

goes from the triad area, and towards the central vein

45

all the central veins of the lobules merge, and come together, and upon exiting the liver they are called the:

hepatic vein

46

_____ are responsible for making bile

hepatocytes

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bile is made in the _____ and then is secreted through the _______ before exiting via the bile duct

hepatocytes, bile canaliculi

48

bile away from the ______, moves from the ______ through the _______ to the bile duct, and

central vein, hepatocytes, bile canaliculi

49

blood of the liver flows ______ the portal triad (portal artery and portal vein), ______ the central vein, while bile flows in the opposite direction

from, to

50

if you have drug toxicity (overdose), where in the triad would experience a problem?

the peripheral (would see most of the drug toxicity)

51

heart flow being impaired, where in the lobule would you see the effects?

central vein

52

what cells make up the gallbladder?

simple columnar

53

the cells lining the gallbladder have:

microvilli (concentrate stuff, you need to absorb as much as possible), mitochondria

54

pancreatic islets are associated with:

endocrine function

55

pancreatic acini cells are associated with

exocrine function

56

the secretory cells that produce the pancreatic enzymes are called:

acini

57

acinar cells have an apical side that is ______ because it contains ______

stippled appearance, zymogen granules

58

zymogen granules are found:

in the apical cytoplasm of the acinar cells,

59

the zymogen granules are:

precursors to enzymes

60

_______ are precursors to enzymes

proenzymes

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the enzymes found in the appical cyoplasm of acinar cells include:

amylase, lipase, protease

62

acinar cells are full of:

Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum

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if you want a cell to absorb, they must have a great deal of ______

mitochondria

64

the acinar cells have dark purple areas of stain because of the ______

Rough ER

65

while the secretory cells of Acini contain proenzyme cells that stain _______, the outer edges stain ________ due to the presence of RER

pink, dark purple

66

acinar cells in the pancrease secrete;

bicarbonate

67

acinar cells are granulated, simple columnar cells on the basal side of the pancrease with ____

centroasinar cells in the middle

68

in a typical exocrine gland, there is a secretory vesicle made up of the ____ portion and the ______

acinus (secretory portion) and the duct (conducting portion)

69

________ has a lumen with precipitated secretory material (pink glob) with cuboidal/columnar epithelial cells lining the duct

interlobular duct

70

_______ ducts have zymogen granule-enriched areas of acinar cells (eosinophilic)

intralobular

71

the duct system in the pancrease has increasingly large cells starting with the _____ then the ____ and the ______

intercalated duct, intralobular duct, and interlobular duct

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intercalated ducts have ______

simple squamous, simple cuboidal

73

intralobular ducts contain:

simple cuboidal/simple columnar, less connective tissue

74

interlobular ducts contain:

simple columnar, more connective tissue

75

interlobular ducts contain:

simple columnar, more connective tissue

76

absorption takes place in:

jejunum and illeum

77

jejunum vs illeum

illeum is next to large intestine, full of bacteria, so illeum has more immunity cells than jejunum; jejunum has more villi

78

the basal cells of the duodenum lumen are:

muscularis mucosa

79

cells on apical side of lumen in SI are:

columnar epithelium

80

dietary fat goes where the first round of absorption?

through lacteal, into lymphatic system, not to hepatic portal system

81

the lymphatic vessel of the small intestine is called:

lacteal

82

the lymphatic vessels of the SI are designed to absorb:

dietary fats

83

the lymphocyte areas of the illeum are:

peyer's pathes

84

M cells are located in the ______

mucosa layer of the ileum, over the peyer's patch

85

the m cells stand for:

microfold

86

the basal side of m cells have an intracellular pocket that have a nodule full of ______

lymphocytes

87

m cells have_____ that:

specialized epithelial cells, endocytose antigens and transport to underlying cells

88

most important enteroendocrine cell:

G cells

89

the basal portion of the intestinal crypts contain:

paneth cells

90

paneth cells:

stain red because of lysosomes

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paneth cells are of importance in the _____

illeum

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paneth cells play a role in:

innate immunity

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paneth cells contain:

large eosinophilic secretory granules containing lysosomes

94

large intestine does not: and does:

include extensive villi, contain extensive goblet cells

95

one misconception about large intestine:

it does not absorb as much h2o as everyone thinks because water follows stuff, and there isn't much stuff left

96

in the rectal-anal area, the epithelial cells change from _____ to ______

simple columnar to stratified squamous

97

the difference between internal and external sphincters

internal is under smooth muscle control, external is skeletal muscle

98

the large intestine has:

a thick longitudinal layer of smooth muscle

99

taenia coli:

layer of incomplete longitutinal muscles found in the large intestine

100

villi of the large intestine?

no

101

large intestine contains extensive:

goblet cells (mucousa)

102

large circular muscle forms pockets known as:

haustra

103

serous acina

lumen leading to intercalated duct,

104

_______ is the initial duct leading the secretion out of the acina

intercalated duct

105

folded basal portion of the _____ ducts are called ______, filled with ______

salivary, striated mitochondria (if you want the cell to absorb more sodium, you need more mitochondria)

106

Parotid glands contain:

serous acinar, connective tissue, striated ducts

107

myoepithelial cells act as secretion cells in:

parotid glands

108

the three types of glands in the mouth area are:

parotid, submandibular, sublingual

109

of the three types of glands, the ____ is the darkest and contains the most protein

parotid

110

of the three types of glands the ______ contains patches of mucosal cells or myoepithelial cells

submandibular

111

of the three types of glands, the ______ look mostly white and are full of mucos secreting cells

sublingual

112

myoepithelial cells surround:

acina

113

myoepithelial cells are found in:

salivary gland, mammary gland, sweat gland

114

survive without stomach? what's the down side?

no parietal cells, no IF, no B12, no Hg synthesis

115

illeum is necessary for absorption of

b12

116

first part of liver lobule effected by tylonol overdose:

1 peripheral going into central vein