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Flashcards in Introduction to the Nervous System Deck (84):
1

Somatic Nerve Fibers Conduct impulses from

CNS to skeletal (conscious control of muscles) as opposed to involuntary

2

autonomic system consists of

visceral nerve fibers

3

autonomic system regulates

smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, glands

4

autonomic system is _______ voluntary

involuntary

5

2 systems of autonomic

sympathetic and parasympathetic

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cells of nervous system

neurons and neuroglia

7

neurons are _______

amitotic, long living, high metabolic rate,

8

2 names of neuron body

soma or perikaryon

9

nuclei of neurons are found in the

CNS

10

ganglia have clusters of neuron cell bodies

in the PNS

11

CNS contains _____ while PNS contains ______

processes and cell bodies; primarily processes

12

Tracts

Bundle of Neuron processes in CNS

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2 types of processes

dendrites and axons

14

Cell body in CNS

Nuclei

15

Cell body in PNS

Ganglia

16

Processes in CNS

Tracts

17

Processes in PNS

Nerves

18

Inside the cell body

rough ER Chromatophilic

19

dentrites

Transmit signal as Graded Potential and action potential

20

Graded Potential occurs in

dentrites, cell body, sensory receptor

21

Action potential occurs in

Axon

22

Strength of Graded Potential

relatively weak, dissapates with distance

23

strength of action potential

100 mV all or none

24

strength of graded potential

hyperpolarizing or depolarizing

25

strength of action potential

depolarizing

26

Refractory period of graded potential

none

27

refractory period of action potential

absolute and relative

28

channel type responsible for graded potential

mechanical, ligand gated

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channel type responsible for action potential

voltage gated

30

ions involved in graded potential

Ca-, K+, Na+

31

ions involved in action potential

K+, Na+

32

Axon starts at the _____

axon hillock

33

axons have occasional branches called

collaterals

34

nerve impulses are generated and transmitted along the _____

axolemma

35

axons rely on cell body to _____

renew proteins and membrane

36

molecules and organelles are moved along the axons by

motor proteins (dynein and kinesin)

37

Anterograde

away from the cell body

38

retrograde

towards the cell body (cells to be degraded, virus, bacteria)

39

Na+/K+ ATPase is responsible for the

concentration gradient

40

Resting potential of Electrochemical gradient

-70mV

41

Passive Channels

Leak Channels (always open)

42

Passive channels change with _______

Concetration

43

Active Channels are usually_______

gated/closed

44

innactivation gate is always except ______

open/depolarized (+30)

45

Chemically Gated Channels are Usually found _____

Cell Bodies and Dendrites

46

One of the most common neurotransmitters that open chemically gated channels ____

ACh

47

Voltage gated channels are most commonly found in ______

neural axons, Sarcolema of muscle cells, skeletal muscle

48

Mechanically Gated channels are found in _____

Sensory receptors

49

Voltage gated channels respond to changes in ______

Transmembrane Potential

50

Graded Potential

Change in transmembrane potential, any stimulus that opens a chemically gated receptor

51

depolarization

Potential is proportional to the stimulus

52

Graded potentials tend to

taper off

53

The effect of graded potential is ________

most affected at site and then decreases, passive, dose-dependent, hyperpolarize, depolarize,

54

how does a graded potential send a signal down the axon?

action potential

55

graded potential has to cause a change of 10 mV at the _______ to cause an action potential

axon hillock

56

three conditions of gated channels

closed but capable of opening (activation gate is closed) but could open; =

57

activation gate is closed, inactivation is up:

polarized (-70mV)

58

at 30+ mV, the _______ gates close

inactivation gates

59

K+ channels open and the

inner membrane becomes less polarized

60

what happens if you have hyperkalemia?

Takes longer for K+ to flow out of cell, and longer to repolarize

61

K+ channels begin to close at

-70mV

62

K+ channels finish closing at

-90mV (hyper polarized)

63

inactivation gate Na+ gate opens at; activation gate at

-70/-60

64

inactivation gate Na+ opens ___closes at

-70/+30

65

activation gate Na+ opens at _____ closes at

-60/-90

66

why is action potential always moving down the axon?

hyperpolarization prohibits moving backwards

67

Absolute refractory period

Na+ channels are open and inactive-60=-90

68

Relative refractory

Almost normal potential -90=-70

69

2 types of propagation of signal

continuous (unmylinated)/saltatory

70

Axon Diameters:

a=big, b=medium, c=small

71

excitatoy/inhibitory depends on the

receptor

72

Somatic cells go from ______ to ______ in the peripheral nervous system

neuron soma to effector muscle, ACh to skeletal muscle

73

ANS nerves in sympathetic travel from

nerve to ganglion, deliver ACh, and then postsynaptic nerve from ganglion to gland and then NE to blood stream

74

ANS nerves in parasympathetic travel from

nerve to ganglion ACh, then to

75

channel linked neurotransmitter receptors include the ions

Ca+ K+ Na+ Direct and Simple

76

G coupled protein receptors:

secondary messenger, indirect, cAMP,

77

Channel Linked receptors

Cholinergic/ligand gated

78

nicotinic receptors

ion channels, cholinergic: ACh

79

muscarinic receptors

G-coupled protein, cholinergic: ACh

80

Adrenergic

NE, alpha and beta

81

2 types of cholinergic:

nicotinic, muscarinic, bind ACh

82

Adrenergic

NE

83

preganglianic neurotransmitter:

ACh

84

Post ganglianic neurotransmitter:

para: ACh. symp: NE