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Flashcards in HF1 Deck (30)
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1

what are some causes of acute exacerbations

1. medication non-adherence
2. increased blood volume
3. uncontrolled HTN
4. Illness
5. drugs

2

intake of what can exacerbate HF by increasing blood volume

increased sodium and water intake

3

what are 5 drugs that can exacerbate HF

1. NSAIDS
2. alcohol
3. non-DHP CCBs
4. BBs
5. antiarrhythics

4

what are some systolic HF characteristics

decreased mechanical pumping actions
decreased ejection fraction

5

an ejection fraction less than what diagnoses HF

less than 40%

6

what is the most common type of HF?
systolic or diastolic

systolic

7

what are some characteristics of diastolic HF?

1. normal ejection fraction
2. stiffened left ventricle
2. dysfunction with relaxation/ filling

8

who is at the highest risk for diastolic HF

elderly women

9

what commonly causes diastolic HF

ischemia and hypertrophy

10

failure of which side of the heart causes pitting edema

right HF

11

failure of which side of the heart causes elevated brain naturetic peptide (BNP)

both Left and right HF

12

failure of which side of the heart causes positive jugular venous distension (+JVD)

right HF

13

failure of which side of the heart causes rales and crackles

left HF

14

failure of which side of the heart causes PND (paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea)

left HF

15

failure of which side of the heart causes a cough

Both left and right

16

what are the 2 symptoms of right sided failure

edema and nocturia

17

how do you calculate SV

end diastolic volume - end systolic volume

18

what is the max amount of blood in ventricle filling during diastole

end diastolic volume

19

what is the minimum amount of blood left in heart (during contration)

end systolic volume

20

ventricular performance is synonymous with what

end systolic volume

21

ejection fraction is calculated how

stoke volume/ EDV

22

what is the left ventricular filling during diastole refer to?

preload

23

what determines preload

end diastolic volume

24

what is influenced by preload

stroke volume

25

what determines afterload

SVR

26

what is also refered to as impedance to ejection

afterload

27

what is HF's effect on:
intrinsic contractility
muscle shortening
LV volume

decrease intrinsic contractility
increase muscle shortening
increase LV stroke volume

28

what refers to how hard the force of the heart is

contractility

29

what is the first compensatory mechanism seen in HF?

heart rate increases

30

beta receptors are activated by SNS due to what in HF

increased SV