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Flashcards in ischemia1 Deck (30)
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1

what are the active ingredients in loveza

EPA and DHA

2

where do omega 3 fatty acids work

nuclear transcription factors
SREBP-1c and PPAR

3

what is lowered by omega 3 fatty acids?

triglycerides

4

how many mg/day of omega-3-fatty acids are need to have a therapeutic effect

250 mg/day

5

what is the recommended dose of plant stanols and sterols?

2g/ day

6

what is the recommended amount of fiber needed per day?

10-25 mg/day

7

when is combo therapy useful for dyslipidemia

1. when resins cause increased TG
2. when both LDL and TG are increased
3. unacceptable response to a single agent
4. patient also has decreased LDL

8

which is not a determinant of oxygen demand?
a. heart rate
b. contractility
c. blood flow
d. wall stress

c. blood flow

9

what does blood flow increase?

supply

10

arterial relaxation will result in:
1. increased afterload
2. decreased afterload
3. increased preload
4. decreased preload

2. decreased preload

11

vascular tone of coronary arteries deals with what?
oxygen demand or oxygen supply

oxygen supply

12

relaxation of vascular smooth muscle occurs by:
a. increasing cGMP
b. decreasing cAMP
c. increasing calcium

a. increasing cGMP

13

what are the 4 mechanisms to relax smooth muscle

1. increasing cGMP
2. decrease intracellular calcium
3. stabilize or prevent polarization
4. increasing cAMP

14

what is the main cause of ischemic disease

coronary artery blockage

15

what does ischemia mean

decreased blood flow

16

what does hypoxia mean

decreased oxygen to tissues

17

how can someone get hypoxia without ischemia

anemia (no o2 carrying capacity)

18

what symptom is first caused by ischemia

angina pectoris (chest pain from lack of blood to heart)

19

what is often referred to in classic angina or chronic?
what leads to it?

normal ischemia
upon exertion or exercise (reproducible)

20

what type of angina is caused by plaque narrowing lumen of artery

stable angina

21

what type of angina is a life threatening situation from ruptured plaque in artery

unstable angina

22

what is present in lumen of artery during unstable angina, or acute coronary syndrome

platelet aggregation
thrombin formation
no troponin

23

what is difference in STEMI's and different anginas in lab reports

STEMI's have positive troponin levels

24

what is difference in STEMI and NSTEMI

STEMI = EKG shows ST interval disruption
NSTEMI = no EKG change

25

what determines severity of myocardial necrosis do to ischemia

1. where is it (LAD very dangerous)
2. how long has it been there
3. degree of collateral circulation (little vessels compensate)

26

what is the MOA of nitrates?

increase NO, activating guanalyl cyclase

27

what are the 3 drugs used for myocardial ischemia

1. nitrates
2. calcium channel blocker
3. Beta blockers

28

nitrates effect what? O2 supply or O2 demand?
where does it work?
what is it's effect on preload or afterload and end diastolic volume

decrease oxygen demand
increase venous capacitance
decrease preload
decrease diastolic volume

29

nitrates do what to afterload or preload?

nitrates decrease preload

30

venous dilation leads to what in the heart

less oxygen demand, heart doesn't have to work as hard