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Flashcards in HF3 Deck (41)
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1

what is the mechanism of action of clonidine
a. direct dilation of arterioles
b. selectively block alpha1 receptors
c. reduce sympathetic outflow from vasomotor centers in the brainstem
d. prevent the release of NE from peripheral postganglionic sympathetic neurons

c. reduce sympathetic outflow

2

which are the predominant initial effects of B1 antagonists
a. decrease HR and decrease FOC
b. decrease HR and decrease PVR
c. decrease PVR and decrease preload
d. decrease preload and decrease CO

a. decrease in HR and decrease in FOC

3

what is the most likely adverse effect of a drug that causes direct vasodilation of arterioles

tachycardia

4

list 4 groups known as preload reducers

1. diuretics
2. aquaretics
3. aldosterone antagonists
4. venodilators

5

what are diuretics effects on symptoms of HF and hypertrophy

decreases symptoms and decreases hypertrophy

6

which is an antidiuretic hormone antagonist:
a. acetazolamide
b. conivaptan
c. eplerenone
d. triamterene

b. conivaptan

7

name two aquaretics

conivaptan (IV)
tolvaptan (PO)

8

what are the effects of auqaretics?

increase urine output, increase sodium concentration, decrease HF symptom,s, and effect BP

9

list two aldosterone antagonists that decrease preload

spironolactone and eplerenone

10

what is the MOA of aldosterone antagonists

decrease Na/ K exchange in collecting duct;
decreasing sodium and water reabsorption

11

what should be monitored when taking spironolactone?

potassium

12

list the venodilators.
what is there MOA

NTG
sodium nitroprusside
increase venous capacitance

13

what do venodilators do to venous return to heart and O2 demand

decrease venous return
decrease O2 demand

14

does sodium nitroprusside effect the arterial side or venous side more in a normal heart?
in HF?

in normal heart venouse side
in HF arterial side

15

list 3 afterload reducing groups

ACEI/ ARB
Beta blocker
Vasodilators

16

what is the MOA of ACEIs and ARBs on preload side?

blocks aldosterone

17

what is the MOA of ACEIs and ARBs on afterload side

blocks angio II's vasoconstriction

18

how does angio II have a slow pressor response

aldosterone release

19

how does angio II have a rapid pressor response

altered SVR

20

other than decrease afterload and preload what hemodynamic effect does ACEI's and ARBs have?

decrease remodeling and decrease hypertrophy

21

why does BB use seem paradoxical in HF?

they can cause drop in CO initially (bad).
over long term, have decreased mortality do to

22

what all is decreased by BBs in HF?

decreased:
HR
renin
apoptosis
tachyarrhythmias

23

BBs stop tachycardia caused from what in HF

neurohumoral mechanism

24

when should BB's not be used for HF

acute situation

25

list two vasodilators used in afterload reduction

Nesiritide
BiDil

26

what is in BiDil

hydralazine and ISDN

27

name a synthetic brain natriuretic peptide?
what is it's MOA

Nesiritide
MOA = vasodilation by binds to GC receptor on vascular smooth muscle

28

what is brain naturetic peptide

a marker of HF

29

what does nesiritide do by binding to GC receptor?

increase cGMP leading to relaxation
also gives diuresis

30

what needs to be monitored with nesiritide

renal fxn and BP