Flashcards in HIV/AIDS Deck (26):
What transmembrane protein are embedded in the HIV viral envelope and allows HIV-CD4 binding?
What makes HIV so hard to treat?
-Each infected CD4 produces about 100 new visions
-1:4000 basepair error rate (very high mutation rate)
What are 4 ways HIV kills CD4 cells?
1-Direct cell killing
4-Damage to precursor cells
Healthy people have ______CD4 t cells/mL while an untreated HIV/AIDS patient can fall below________
_____ is the speed or rate of change and _______ numbers are the distance to immunodeficiency?
Viral load, CD4
What are the three categories of CD4 cell counts?
1-More than 500 (normal)
2-Between 350-500 (increased risk)
3-less than 350 (high risk)
What are the 2 types of HIV?
2-HIV-2 (relatively uncommon and concentrated in west africa)
*SIV in monkeys
What drug is very reliable in preventing HIV transmission to a newborn?
3 or more drugs combined (two nucleoside analogue RT inhibitors and 1 strong drug) are typical of what treatment?
HAART (cART) therapy
*Strong drug is a non nucleoside RT inhibitor, protease inhibitor or integrate strand transfer inhibitor
The goal of HAART therapy is to suppress ______ and restore or preserve ________
Viral load, CD4 levels
Anemia, neutropenia, xerostomia, oral ulcers, perioral paresthesia, lichenoid rxns, chapped lips, liver disease, metallic taste, dysgeusia, bone marrow suppression, and increased incidence of oral warts are all what?
Dental implications of HIV
What are two of the biggest concerns of HAART therapy?
What are the 4 types of medications used in HAART therapy that have dental concerns?
What are 5 predisposing factors for oral lesions in HAART patients?
1-CD4 counts 3000
4-Poor oral hygiene
What condition is characterized by a non-wipable, hairy, white lesion on the lateral borders or dorsal of the tongue?
What are the three major candidiasis presentations in HIV?
Nystatin topicals, clotrimazole/ketoconazole or amphotericin B solutions are used to treat what?
What are two opportunistic tumors seen in HIV?
1-Kaposi sarcoma (caused by HHV 8)
What are five xerostomia management options?
5-Oral hygiene, decrease smoking
What are 3 general guidelines for lab values in managings HIV patients?
1-CD4 level changes
2-Viral Load changes
3-Duration of infection
What are the critical blood values for CD4 levels in HIV patients?
Less than 200
*normal is 800-1200
What are the critical blood values of total white cells in HIV patients?
Less than 2000
*normal is 4500-10000
What are critical blood values for absolute neutrophils in HIV patients?
less than 500
*normal is 2500-7500
What are the critical blood values for platelet counts of HIV patients?
less than 20,000 (dental procedures contraindicated)
What are the critical blood values of hematocrit for HIV?
Less than 25%
*normal is 36-50%