Flashcards in Antivirals Deck (19):
Antigens on new viruses that are slightly mutated to prevent host immune system from recognizing the virus is called what?
*Larger changes that may result in viral epidemics are antigenic shifts
Acyclovir, Valcyclovir, Famcyclovir, Penicyclovir, Ganciclovir and Foscarnet are antiviral drugs that act on what?
Inhibit DNA polymerase
Amantadine is an antiviral drug that does what?
Inhibits viral uncoating (M2 Protein)
Ribavarin is an antiviral drug that does what?
Inhibits viral translation by inhibit RNA polymerase
Zanamivir and oseltamivir are antiviral drugs that do what?
Inhibit neuroaminidase (viral release)
What are the two categories of Herpes simplex virus?
HSV Type 1 (Oral herpes, resides in trigeminal ganglia)
HSV Type 2 (Genital herpes, resides in sacral ganglia)
What are the two main diseases caused by VZV?
1-Chickenpox (Varicella initial infection)
2-Shingles (herpes zoster reactivation)
In general, canker sores are found ______ the mouth while Cold sores (fever blisters) are found _______ the mouth
What are the 3 main drugs used for Antiviral treatment of HSV and VZV?
1-Acyclovir (mainly HSV, 10x more potent against HSV than VZV)
2-Valacyclovir (converts to acyclovir via first pass metabolism)
3-Famiciclovir (metabolized to penciclovir, primarily used for VZV)
*Must hydrate well on these drugs to avoid crystalline nephropathy
Which antiviral is used topically for orofacial or genital HSV related sores?
Which antiviral is approved for prophylaxis and treament of cytomegalovirus?
*contraindicated in pregnant or males who wish to bear children
Which antiviral is used for CMV in immunocompromised patients and is useful when acyclovir or ganciclovir resistant?
What viral enzyme is necessary to activate acyclovir and allow it to incorporate into viral DNA, thus blocking its ability to elongate?
Viral Thymidine kinase
*acyclovir monophosphate lacks 3' hydroxyl group and cannot be elongated
What drug is 10x more potent against HSV 1 and 2 than against VZV?
What are the best drugs to treat varicella zoster virus from best to worst?
What drug is used when viral kinases have mutated to avoid cyclovirs and inhibits viral DNA polymerase enzymes?
*IV only, nephrotoxicity
What drug is used for prophylaxis and treatment of influenza A and B viruses?
Oseltamivir (Tamaiflu) neuroaminidase inhibitor
*early administration is crucial. Disulfuram like reaction
Which drug is used for treatment and prophylaxis of influenza A and B and is administered in an inhalation route?
*Disulfuram like reaction, contraindicated in severe asthma or those with Milk protein allergies