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Flashcards in Antivirals Deck (19):
1

Antigens on new viruses that are slightly mutated to prevent host immune system from recognizing the virus is called what?

Antigenic drift

*Larger changes that may result in viral epidemics are antigenic shifts

2

Acyclovir, Valcyclovir, Famcyclovir, Penicyclovir, Ganciclovir and Foscarnet are antiviral drugs that act on what?

Inhibit DNA polymerase

3

Amantadine is an antiviral drug that does what?

Inhibits viral uncoating (M2 Protein)

4

Ribavarin is an antiviral drug that does what?

Inhibits viral translation by inhibit RNA polymerase

5

Zanamivir and oseltamivir are antiviral drugs that do what?

Inhibit neuroaminidase (viral release)

6

What are the two categories of Herpes simplex virus?

HSV Type 1 (Oral herpes, resides in trigeminal ganglia)
HSV Type 2 (Genital herpes, resides in sacral ganglia)

7

What are the two main diseases caused by VZV?

1-Chickenpox (Varicella initial infection)
2-Shingles (herpes zoster reactivation)

8

In general, canker sores are found ______ the mouth while Cold sores (fever blisters) are found _______ the mouth

Inside, outside

9

What are the 3 main drugs used for Antiviral treatment of HSV and VZV?

1-Acyclovir (mainly HSV, 10x more potent against HSV than VZV)
2-Valacyclovir (converts to acyclovir via first pass metabolism)
3-Famiciclovir (metabolized to penciclovir, primarily used for VZV)

*Must hydrate well on these drugs to avoid crystalline nephropathy

10

Which antiviral is used topically for orofacial or genital HSV related sores?

Penciclovir

11

Which antiviral is approved for prophylaxis and treament of cytomegalovirus?

Gancyclovir

*contraindicated in pregnant or males who wish to bear children

12

Which antiviral is used for CMV in immunocompromised patients and is useful when acyclovir or ganciclovir resistant?

Foscarnet

13

What viral enzyme is necessary to activate acyclovir and allow it to incorporate into viral DNA, thus blocking its ability to elongate?

Viral Thymidine kinase

*acyclovir monophosphate lacks 3' hydroxyl group and cannot be elongated

14

What drug is 10x more potent against HSV 1 and 2 than against VZV?

Acyclovir

15

What are the best drugs to treat varicella zoster virus from best to worst?

Famciclovir> Valacyclovir>>>>>acyclovir

16

What drug is used when viral kinases have mutated to avoid cyclovirs and inhibits viral DNA polymerase enzymes?

Foscarnet

*IV only, nephrotoxicity

17

What drug is used for prophylaxis and treatment of influenza A and B viruses?

Oseltamivir (Tamaiflu) neuroaminidase inhibitor

*early administration is crucial. Disulfuram like reaction

18

Which drug is used for treatment and prophylaxis of influenza A and B and is administered in an inhalation route?

Zanamivir (Relenza)

*Disulfuram like reaction, contraindicated in severe asthma or those with Milk protein allergies

19

Which drug is an antiviral and a weak anti-parkinsons drug and is effective against influenza A only?

Amantadine (blocks biral penetration/uncoating M2 Proteins)

*CNS side effects