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Flashcards in Diarrhea Deck (28):
1

Syndromes of diarrhea or vomiting that tend to involve non-inflammatory infection of upper small bowel or inflammatory infection of the colon are referred to as what?

Gastroenteritis

2

What are two normal enteric microflora?

1-Bacteroides fragilis (anaerobe)
2-E. Coli (Facultative)

3

What are the 3 main Microbial virulence factor categories?

1-Toxins
2-Attachment
3-Invasiveness

4

What are the three categories of Toxins?

1-Neurotoxins
2-Enterotoxins
3-Cytotoxins

5

Typical of S. Aureus, B. Cereus, and C. botulinum, what type of toxin are preformed and generally effect the central autonomic nervous system?

Neurotoxins

6

Typical of Vibrio cholerae along with other organisms, which type of toxin have a direct effect on intestinal mucosa causing fluid secretion and outpouring of electrolytes and fluid?

Enterotoxins

*watery diarrea, primarily attacks jejunum and upper ileum

7

Often resulting in inflammatory colitis, which toxin is responsible for mucosal destruction and is generally referred to as dysentery?

Cytotoxins

*Shigella dysenteriae is a major cause

8

Attachment destroys the ability of cells to participate in normal secretion and absorption and is typical of what 4 organisms?

1-E. Coli
2-Giardia lamblia
3-Cryptosporidium
4-Isospora

9

Invasion and destruction of epithelial cells, primarily the colon, is responsible for dysenteric diarrhea and is caused primarily by what organisms?

1-Shigella spp.
2-E. Coli
3-Salmonella typhi
4-Salmonella cholerasuis
5-Vibrio Spp.
6-Yersinia enterocolitica

10

What are the two main causes of food-borne illness in the U.S.?

1-Campylobacter jejuni
2-Salmonella spp.

11

Which pathogen is found in higher fat foods like meats and milk products?

Staphylococcus Aureus

*Rapid onset

12

Which pathogen is an anaerobic spore former and is found in meats and soil?

C. Perfringenes

13

Which pathogen is found primarily in Poultry, eggs, meats, milk, and produce?

Salmonella

14

Which pathogen is found on Produce and is passed as direct fecal/oral?

Shigella

15

Which pathogen is found in water, raw milk, poultry and passed by some pets?

Campylobacter

16

What is the main parasite found in raw or undercooked seafood?

Vibrio parahaemolyticus

*Cousin to Cholera

17

Which pathogen is found in rice (rewarmed usually) meat and vegetables (dirt)?

Bacillus Cereus

18

Which pathogen is found in slow moving water?

Aeromonas Hydrophilia

19

Which pathogen is found in water and contaminated food?

Vibrio cholera

*rice water diarrhea

20

Which pathogen is found in beef, raw milk and produce?

SLT E. Coli

21

Which pathogen is found in soft cheeses, raw milk and deli meats?

Listeria monocytogenes

*can cause neonatal meningitis or kill the fetus

22

What is the incubation time for the hysteria reaction?

minutes

23

What is the incubation time for B. Cereus, S. Aureus, and chemicals/heavy metals/shellfish toxins?

Minutes-hours

24

What is the incubation time for Botulism and clostridium perfringenes?

Several hours

25

What is the incubation time for Salmonella, Shigella, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Campylobacter, yersenia enterocoliticia and viruses?

A day or so

26

What is the incubation time for clostridium difficile, giardia and amoebas?

Days to weeks

27

What is the most important treatment for diarrhea?

Fluid replacement

28

What treatment has no value for food poising, lifesaving in invasive salmonella and typhoid fever, can be used for shigella or cholera and should be evaluated for use in SLT E. Coli and HUS?

Antibiotics