Pathology and Response to Stress Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Pathology and Response to Stress Deck (24):
1

Lack of circulation to a tissue results in a condition called?

Ischemia

2

Lack of oxygen to a tissue results in a condition called?

Hypoxia

3

An increase in cell size, not number is called?

Hypertrophy

4

Cell shrinkage or loss can be caused by lack of hormonal signals, loss of innervation, lack of use or blood supply, or blood supply and is called?

Atrophy

5

Fatty atrophy is also referred to as?

Cachexia

6

Increased number of cells is called?

Hyperplasia

7

Replacement of one cell type by another is called?

Metaplasia

8

Disordered hyperplasia without maturation is called?

Dysplasia

9

What are two types of cells that are most prone to injury?

1-High metabolic activity (cardiac myocytes, renal tubular cells, hepatocytes)
2-Rapidly proliferating (testicular germ cells, intestinal epithelium, hematopoietic cells)

10

What are two types of irreversible cell death?

1-Apoptosis (programmed cell death)
2-Necrosis (uncontrolled cell death)

11

What is the main gene that mediates apoptosis?

P53

12

What cascade pathway is the most common lead to apoptosis?

Caspase cascade

13

Swelling cells with membrane disruption, Ca+ signal, deeper red cytoplasm (loss of mRNA) and cells in clusters are typical of what type of cell death?

Necrosis

*Gangrene is an example when it is in a whole anatomic area

14

What are three possible nuclear changes in cell death?

1-Karyolysis (digested, pale nucleus)
2-Nuclear pyknosis (Shriveled, dark)
3-Karyorrhexis (nuclear fragmentation)

15

What are 6 patterns of necrosis?

1-Coagulative (with ischemia, makes infarct)
2-Liquefactive (loss of substance as in brain or lung)
3-Fat necrosis
4-Caseous necrosis (necrotizing granulomas)
5-Gangrnous necrosis (whole anatomic area)
6-FIbrinoid necrosis

16

Always pathogenic, acute inflammation, large groups of dying cells, cell swelling, early cell membrane disruption and injury induced uncoordinated death is typical of what?

Necrosis

17

A normal phenomenon, what process has no inflammation, usually one cell at a time, nuclear pyknosis, activation of caspase cascade and is programmed?

Apoptosis

18

Lipid filled macrophages, called foam cells can lead to what?

Cholesterolosis of gall bladder

19

Lysosomal accumulation of lipid is called what?

Gaucher disease

20

What are 3 types of brown storage products?

1-Lipofuscin (degraded lipid in lysosomes)
2-Billirubin (hemoglobin byproduct)
3-Hemosiderin (iron containing)

21

What are two types of intracellular protein storage?

1-a-antitrypsin deficiency
2-Russell bodies in plasma cells (large deposits of immunoglobulin in plasma cell cytoplasm)

22

What are two types of extracellular protein storage?

1-Amyloid (beta pleated sheet protein accumulation)
2-Fibrosis (scars)

23

Mostly in and near lungs, accumulation of carbon pigment is called what?

Anthracosis

*coal workers lung

24

What are the two types of calcification?

1-Dystrophic calcification (damaged tissue)
2-Metastatic calcification (normal tissue)