HIV Pharmacology Flashcards Preview

RESP II Exam 2 > HIV Pharmacology > Flashcards

Flashcards in HIV Pharmacology Deck (31):
1

NRTI

emtricitabine
tenofovir

nucleoside reverse transcripatase inhibitors

2

NNRTI

efavirenz

3

PI

ataanavir
darunavir
lopinavir
ritonavir

4

INSTI

raltegravir

5

CCR5 antagonist

maraviroc

6

fusion inhibitors

enfuviritide

7

antiretroviral treatment

backbone and a base

backbone - two NRTIs

base - NNRTI, PI, INSTI, CCR5 blocker

8

backbone

emtricitabine
tenofovir

9

pregnant women

polinavir/ritonavir and zidovudine/lamivudine BID

10

preferred base drugs

efavirenz

ritonivir boosted atazanavir or darunavir

raltegravir

11

HIV virus

RNA retrovirus

gp41, gp120, p24, p17

drug choice depends on genetic analysis of HIV virus patient has
-reverse transcriptase, protease, integrase, ribonuclease - important genetic targets (pol)

12

coreceptor

CCR5 - allows fusion and entry of HIV

gp120, gp41 involved

13

primary infection

initial viremia spike - then decreases

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eradication of HIV

cannot occur

15

primary goal of antiretroviral therapy

reduce morbidity and increase duration of life

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combination drugs

minimize development of resistance

billions of copes of viral DNA produced per day - lots of mutations

17

initiation of therapy

CD4 < 350 - 500

and all patients regardless of CD4 - pregnant, HIV associated nephropathy, and have hep B virus coinfection

18

IV drug users

often hep B and HIV coinfection

19

indicator of response

viral load

20

drug resistance testing

genotypic assays
-to detect mutations

test all patients when first begin drug treatment

phenotypic assays - ability of virus to grow in antiretroviral drug presence

21

ART

antiretroviral therapy

decrease risk of resistance

22

HAART

highly active anti-retroviral therapy (old name)

23

NRTI MOA

tenofovir, emtricitabine

nucleoside/nucleotide

reverse transcriptase inhibitor
-causes chain termination

only nucleotide - tenofovir

tenofovir - Hep B
emtricitabine - well tolerated
zidovudine (AZT) - first licensed

24

NNRTI MOA

efavirenz

non-nucleoside

bind to reverse transcriptase blocking RNA and DNA dependent DNA polymerase activity

25

not in pregnant women

efavirenz - embryotoxic

26

ritonavir boosting

inhibit metabolism of other PIs by binding to CYP3A4

27

PI MOA

gag and gag-pol gene product

prevent this viral protease

get immature noninfectious viral particles

28

PI combination

this was a breakthrough drug - prolonged survival with even advanced HIV infection

29

INSTI MOA

integrase strand transfer inhibitor

block integrase that catalyzes process of viral DNA insertion into host genome

-prevents viral DNA from integrating with cellular DNA

30

CCR5 antagonists

co-receptors are CCR5 (early) and CXCR4 (later)

blocks receptor and prevents entry of virus into cell

can assay for CCR5 - coreceptor tropism assay

31

fusion inhibitor

small peptide

reserved for pt on regimen and have developed resistance or tx failure

receptors for HIV virus - are CD4 and CCR5

MOA - binds gp41 subunit and preventionof conformation changes necessary for fusion

must be given BID subQ - drawback