Hygiene, handwashing and hospital design Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Hygiene, handwashing and hospital design Deck (71)
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1

Why is regular handwashing needed?

Remove bacteria and reduce level of residual bacteria

2

When do you need to wash your hands?

Before aseptic procedures
Before and after touching patients and their surroundings

3

How should you wash your hands properly?

Antimicrobial soap or alcohol based sanitiser
Use WHO handwashing protocol

4

What are the general requirements for hand hygeine?

Bare below elbows
Short clean and bare nails
Cover cuts in water proof dressing

5

Describe the stages of the WHO handwashing procedure

Wet hands and apply soap
Palm to palm
Palm over back of hand with interlocked fingers (both sides)
Palm to palm with fingers interlocked
Hands clasped around each other with fingers interlocked
Rotational thumb rubbing
Clean fingers on palms
Rinse hands and dry

6

Why is infection control important?

Prevent HAI
Keep staff and patients safe
Maintain public health

7

How to clean kennels appropriately

Remove bedding and wash at 60 degrees
Remove organic material then remove any traces with detergent
Use disinfectant correctly
Wipe top to bottom

8

Define disinfectant

Killing or removal of microorganisms

9

Define antiseptic

Similar to disinfection but on living tissue

10

Define detergent

Solution with cleaning activity to remove organic matter

11

Define sterilisation

Removal of all microorganisms including spores

12

Define asepsis

Complete removal of all microorganisms including spores resulting in complete sterile state

13

How do bacteria exist in the environment?

Spores- dormant
Vegetative- living and replicating

14

What is the effect of viruses lipid envelope when trying to disinfect?

More easily removed as disinfectant removes lipid layer making it vulnerable

15

What are features of the ideal disinfectant?

Broad spectrum
Non-irritant and non-toxic
Easy to use
Stable and not easily inactivated
Cost effective
Rapid action
Remains on surface for contact time
Not deactivated easily

16

What needs to be considered when choosing disinfectant?

Whats it being used on
Amount of organic matter involved
Contact time
Dilution

17

How do alcohol disinfectants work, what are they used for and what is an example?

Cause cell membrane damage
Fast acting but no residual activity
Broad spectrum effect except against enveloped viruses and spores
Hand disinfection and patient prep
Surgical spirit

18

How do aldehyde disinfectants work, why aren't they used and what is an example?

Denatures proteins, broad spectrum
Toxic and possible carcinogenic
Formaldyhyde

19

How do biguanide disinfectants work, what are they used for and what is an example?

Alters cell membrane permeability but inactivated by organic matter, good residual action.
Effective against bacteria, some fungi but not spores
Used for patient prep or surgical scrub
Chlorhexidine

20

How do halogen disinfectants work, what are they used for and what is an example?

Destroys proteins in cells
Broad spectrum
Cleaning surfaces and skin
Bleach

21

How do QAC disinfectants work, what are they used for and what is an exmaple?

Inactivate enzymes and denature proteins
Some residual activity
Broad spectrum but not against unenveloped viruses or spores
Surface disinfection
Anigene

22

How to phenol disinfectants work, what are they used for and what is an example?

Denature proteins and disrupt cell membranes
Broad spectrum but not against unenveloped viruses or spores
Surface disinfection
Dettol

23

What is meant by a hospital acquired infection?

Infections acquired by patients during hospitalisation of acquired up to 30 days father discharge

24

What are common HAI?

UTIs
Pneumonia
Blood stream infections
Diarrhoea

25

What are some of the consequences of hospital acquired infections?

Client dissatisfaction
Longer hospitalisation
Higher morbidity
Multidrug resistance

26

What are common routes of infection of HAI?

Urinary catheters
Surgery
IV catheters or blood taking
Implants
Feeding tubes
Contamination between patients

27

What are risk factors for HAIs?

Elderly
Young
Immunocompromised
Invasive devices
Endocrine disease

28

How are UTIs acquired in hospitals?

Urinary catheters main cause from repeated placement or poor hygiene

29

What are the signs of UTI?

Pyrexia
Colour or smell change in urine

30

How to correctly insert urinary catheter to prevent UTI?

Wash hands and wear sterile gloves
Clean and clip area
Used closed system collection bag
Avoid repeated placement and remove as soon as possible