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Flashcards in Patient observation Deck (58)
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1

When should your initial patient observation take place?

When client enters the practice before you make any approach to the animal

2

What is the purpose of admission questionaires?

Allow owners to tell you what is normal behaviour and routine

3

What are the 4 stages of patient assessment?

Subjective assessment
Objective assessment
Assessment
Planning

4

What is a subjective assessment?

Initial thoughts recorded on how patient is

5

What are signs of stress in dogs and cats?

Dogs- panting, tucked tail, shaking
Cats- pacing, hissing, vomiting

6

What order should you carry out the objective assessment?

Head
Upper respiratory tract/nose
Oral cavity
Mucus membranes
Eyes
Ears
Skin and hair
Forelimbs
Thorax
Abdomen
Pelvis and hind limbs
Tail
Anus and perineum
Reproductive organs

7

What should you observe in terms of head assessment?

Posture and carrying position- should be upright and no tilt
Musculature- should have symmetry, palpate and look
General appearance
Lymph nodes- palpate in neck for enlargement

8

What should you observe for upper respiratory tract?

Discharge- should be none, if present not colour and consistency
Moisture- should be moist
Adequate air flow- in cats and rabbits mouth breathing shows severe respiratory distress
Respiratory noise- should be none

9

Define stertor

Noise on expiration

10

Define stridor

Noise on inspiration

11

What should you observe in the oral cavity?

Outside and inside the mouth
Jaw movement and alignment
Tongue- check for any marks, cuts or ulcers
Teeth- any missing, wear, gum disease, plaque, smell
Hard and soft palettes- any abnormalities, wounds
Skin and hair around mouth- excess salivation

12

What should you observe with mucus membranes?

Moisture- should be moist when hydrated
Colour- should be pink
CRT- should be less than 2 seconds

13

What are possible causes of pale MMs?

Poor perfusion
Haemorrhage
Anaemia

14

What are possible causes of red MMs?

Sepsis
Fever
Congested tissues

15

What are possible causes of blue/hypoxic MMs?

Hypoxaemia
Respiratory issues

16

What are possible causes of yellow MMs?

Liver disease
RBC destruction
Bile issues

17

What needs to be observed for eyes?

Openness
Compare both eyes for size, protrusion etc
Discharge- should be none, not colour and consistency
Eyelids- third eyelid coming across, upper or lower eyelid rotation
Pupils- general assessment, light reflex, pupil size, ulcers, scratches
Sclera colour

18

Define blepharospasm

Squinting eyes

19

Define entropion

Internal rotation of eyelid margin

20

Define ectropion

External rotation of eyelid margin

21

Define anicosia

Unequal pupil size

22

What should you observe in the ears?

Ear pinnae- check for aural haematoma, injuries
Ear canal- should be no discharge, smell, foreign bodies, or inflammation

23

What should you observe for skin and hair?

Coat- condition- should be shiny, check for alopecia and thickness
Skin condition- should be no redness, flaking or wounds, check colour, elasticity
Ectoparasites- should be no fleas or ticks

24

What should you observe for forelimbs?

Movement, gait and range of motion- flex and extend for pain or crepitus
Muscles- any wastage
Proprioception- can limbs be replaced
Visuals- lumps, changes or injuries, symmetry

25

Define crepitus

Bone crunching

26

What should you observe for thorax?

Respiratory rate and effort- auscultate chest
Vertebrae, sternum and ribs- palpate and looks, observe weight score

27

What should you observe for the abodomen?

Visual and palpate- check for lumps, foreign bodies, injuries, check internal organs
Posture

28

What should you observe for pelvis and hind limbs?

Movement, gait and range of motion- observe and flex and extend
Visual check of bones and musculature
Proprioception
Femoral pulse- circulation status

29

What should you observe for the tail?

Palpate length and check for movement- normal and voluntary , observe any pain or damage

30

What should you observe for anus and perineum?

Soiling, discharge or anal gland problems
Masses, prolapse or perineal ruptures
Temperature