Flashcards in Patient observation Deck (58)
When should your initial patient observation take place?
When client enters the practice before you make any approach to the animal
What is the purpose of admission questionaires?
Allow owners to tell you what is normal behaviour and routine
What are the 4 stages of patient assessment?
What is a subjective assessment?
Initial thoughts recorded on how patient is
What are signs of stress in dogs and cats?
Dogs- panting, tucked tail, shaking
Cats- pacing, hissing, vomiting
What order should you carry out the objective assessment?
Upper respiratory tract/nose
Skin and hair
Pelvis and hind limbs
Anus and perineum
What should you observe in terms of head assessment?
Posture and carrying position- should be upright and no tilt
Musculature- should have symmetry, palpate and look
Lymph nodes- palpate in neck for enlargement
What should you observe for upper respiratory tract?
Discharge- should be none, if present not colour and consistency
Moisture- should be moist
Adequate air flow- in cats and rabbits mouth breathing shows severe respiratory distress
Respiratory noise- should be none
Noise on expiration
Noise on inspiration
What should you observe in the oral cavity?
Outside and inside the mouth
Jaw movement and alignment
Tongue- check for any marks, cuts or ulcers
Teeth- any missing, wear, gum disease, plaque, smell
Hard and soft palettes- any abnormalities, wounds
Skin and hair around mouth- excess salivation
What should you observe with mucus membranes?
Moisture- should be moist when hydrated
Colour- should be pink
CRT- should be less than 2 seconds
What are possible causes of pale MMs?
What are possible causes of red MMs?
What are possible causes of blue/hypoxic MMs?
What are possible causes of yellow MMs?
What needs to be observed for eyes?
Compare both eyes for size, protrusion etc
Discharge- should be none, not colour and consistency
Eyelids- third eyelid coming across, upper or lower eyelid rotation
Pupils- general assessment, light reflex, pupil size, ulcers, scratches
Internal rotation of eyelid margin
External rotation of eyelid margin
Unequal pupil size
What should you observe in the ears?
Ear pinnae- check for aural haematoma, injuries
Ear canal- should be no discharge, smell, foreign bodies, or inflammation
What should you observe for skin and hair?
Coat- condition- should be shiny, check for alopecia and thickness
Skin condition- should be no redness, flaking or wounds, check colour, elasticity
Ectoparasites- should be no fleas or ticks
What should you observe for forelimbs?
Movement, gait and range of motion- flex and extend for pain or crepitus
Muscles- any wastage
Proprioception- can limbs be replaced
Visuals- lumps, changes or injuries, symmetry
What should you observe for thorax?
Respiratory rate and effort- auscultate chest
Vertebrae, sternum and ribs- palpate and looks, observe weight score
What should you observe for the abodomen?
Visual and palpate- check for lumps, foreign bodies, injuries, check internal organs
What should you observe for pelvis and hind limbs?
Movement, gait and range of motion- observe and flex and extend
Visual check of bones and musculature
Femoral pulse- circulation status
What should you observe for the tail?
Palpate length and check for movement- normal and voluntary , observe any pain or damage