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Flashcards in Nursing other species Deck (59)
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1

What is meant by zygodactyl feet in parrots?

2 forward and 2 backward toes

2

How much do parrots weigh?

10g-3kg

3

What are the traits of parrots?

Intelligent
Social
Tropical climates
Prey animals

4

What are the most common parrots kept as pets?

Cockatiels
Budgerigars
African grey

5

What are the lifespans of the common parrots?

Budgerigars- 18 years, 6 in captivity
Cockatiel- 30 years, 7 in captivity
African grey- 50 years, 20 in captivity

6

What is meant by dimorphic sexes?

Morphology differences between males and females in the same species

7

How can you sex parrots?

Budgies- male has blue cere, female has brown
Cockatoos- male has black iris, female has brown
DNA sexing from blood or feather pulp when not dimorphic
Endoscope to look at gonads

8

What are features that should be in parrots cages?

Large as possible, minimum allow wing extension
Stainless steel bars, zinc is toxic in galvanised wire
Horizontal climbing bars
Seperate activity centre
Perches- natural, non-toxic branches, knotted ropes

9

What are the lighting requirements for parrots?

12 hours light cycle
Bright light but not direct sun
UV supply for vitamin D

10

How should parrots be enriched?

Bathing
Foraging for their food
Chew toys
Toys to stimulate brain
Mirrors aid companionship

11

What is the most recommended diet for parrots and explain why

Pelleted diet
Preformulated
Prevents selective feeding
Can provide fruit and veg for enrichment

12

Why are seed based diets not reccomended?

High fat and calories
Deficient in vitamins, amino acids and minerals
Poor Ca:P ratio
Easily contaminated by fungal spores
Encourages selective feeding
Hard to supplement as dehusk before eating

13

What are the health issues of purely seed diet?

Chronic infections
Obesity
Poor reproductive performance
Metabolic bone disease
Siezures

14

Why are home made diets not recommended for parrots and what should they consist of?

Hard to balance, need supplementation and can selectively feed
Mainly grains, beans, greens and fruit or equal parts brown rice, seeds and beans, fruit and veg

15

What are causes of feather pulling in parrots?

Lack of enrichment, particularly in intelligent species and females

16

What history should you take for feather plucking parrots?

Sex
Diet
Housing
Enrichment
Cigarette smoke exposure
Previous plucking
Length and pattern of plucking
Any noticeable causes

17

What is the approach to treating feather plucking?

Rule out medical causes
Improve environment
Examine
Change to pellet diet
Humidify environment to prevent dry feathers
Reduce pollutants
Reduce stress

18

How to treat feather plucking?

Treat conditions
Improve diet
Hospitalise when needed
Positive reinforcement of wanted behaviours
Enrichment

19

How should rabbits be housed?

In pairs or groups
Lower than 23 degrees
Outdoors- wooden hutch with wire mesh, dark nesting area, big enough to stand and take 3 hops, waterproof floor, insulated for winter
Indoors- crate or hutch, away from wires and poisonous plants, access to exercise

20

What bedding should you use for rabbits?

Newspaper
Deep layer shavings
Straw
Hay

21

What features are needed for rabbits runs?

Secure including top
Shade and sunlight
Grazing
Exercise
Hiding bolt hole

22

What can be used to enrich rabbits?

Toys
Cardboard tubes
Foraging
Fruit wood to gnaw

23

What are the nutritional requirements for rabbits?

Supplement few pellets alongside hay, prevent selective feeding, GI upset and obesity
Grass for grazing
Herbs- basil, parsley
Veg- low amounts particularly dark greens
No sugary fruit
Calcium for teeth, excess causes bladder stones

24

Explain breeding in rabbits

No regular oestrus
Induced ovulators
30 day gestation
2-12 per litter

25

Sexing rabbits

Restrain and place pressure either side of genitals
Males- penis protrudes and testicles present
Females- oval structure with slit opening

26

What are housing requirements for guinea pigs?

Not too hot
Kept in groups

27

What are guinea pigs nutritional requirements?

Hay for fibre
High vitamin C
Fresh veg
Some fruit

28

Explain breeding in guinea pigs

Polyoestrus
60-72 day gestation, born fully developed
2-6 in litter

29

Why do guinea pigs need to be bred youg?

At a year old pelvis fuses

30

Sexing guinea pigs

Hold against body and place pressure above genitals
Males- scrotum exposed
Females- Y shaped genital