Flashcards in Nursing other species Deck (59)
What is meant by zygodactyl feet in parrots?
2 forward and 2 backward toes
How much do parrots weigh?
What are the traits of parrots?
What are the most common parrots kept as pets?
What are the lifespans of the common parrots?
Budgerigars- 18 years, 6 in captivity
Cockatiel- 30 years, 7 in captivity
African grey- 50 years, 20 in captivity
What is meant by dimorphic sexes?
Morphology differences between males and females in the same species
How can you sex parrots?
Budgies- male has blue cere, female has brown
Cockatoos- male has black iris, female has brown
DNA sexing from blood or feather pulp when not dimorphic
Endoscope to look at gonads
What are features that should be in parrots cages?
Large as possible, minimum allow wing extension
Stainless steel bars, zinc is toxic in galvanised wire
Horizontal climbing bars
Seperate activity centre
Perches- natural, non-toxic branches, knotted ropes
What are the lighting requirements for parrots?
12 hours light cycle
Bright light but not direct sun
UV supply for vitamin D
How should parrots be enriched?
Foraging for their food
Toys to stimulate brain
Mirrors aid companionship
What is the most recommended diet for parrots and explain why
Prevents selective feeding
Can provide fruit and veg for enrichment
Why are seed based diets not reccomended?
High fat and calories
Deficient in vitamins, amino acids and minerals
Poor Ca:P ratio
Easily contaminated by fungal spores
Encourages selective feeding
Hard to supplement as dehusk before eating
What are the health issues of purely seed diet?
Poor reproductive performance
Metabolic bone disease
Why are home made diets not recommended for parrots and what should they consist of?
Hard to balance, need supplementation and can selectively feed
Mainly grains, beans, greens and fruit or equal parts brown rice, seeds and beans, fruit and veg
What are causes of feather pulling in parrots?
Lack of enrichment, particularly in intelligent species and females
What history should you take for feather plucking parrots?
Cigarette smoke exposure
Length and pattern of plucking
Any noticeable causes
What is the approach to treating feather plucking?
Rule out medical causes
Change to pellet diet
Humidify environment to prevent dry feathers
How to treat feather plucking?
Hospitalise when needed
Positive reinforcement of wanted behaviours
How should rabbits be housed?
In pairs or groups
Lower than 23 degrees
Outdoors- wooden hutch with wire mesh, dark nesting area, big enough to stand and take 3 hops, waterproof floor, insulated for winter
Indoors- crate or hutch, away from wires and poisonous plants, access to exercise
What bedding should you use for rabbits?
Deep layer shavings
What features are needed for rabbits runs?
Secure including top
Shade and sunlight
Hiding bolt hole
What can be used to enrich rabbits?
Fruit wood to gnaw
What are the nutritional requirements for rabbits?
Supplement few pellets alongside hay, prevent selective feeding, GI upset and obesity
Grass for grazing
Herbs- basil, parsley
Veg- low amounts particularly dark greens
No sugary fruit
Calcium for teeth, excess causes bladder stones
Explain breeding in rabbits
No regular oestrus
30 day gestation
2-12 per litter
Restrain and place pressure either side of genitals
Males- penis protrudes and testicles present
Females- oval structure with slit opening
What are housing requirements for guinea pigs?
Not too hot
Kept in groups
What are guinea pigs nutritional requirements?
Hay for fibre
High vitamin C
Explain breeding in guinea pigs
60-72 day gestation, born fully developed
2-6 in litter
Why do guinea pigs need to be bred youg?
At a year old pelvis fuses