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Flashcards in Nutrition Deck (76)
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1

Define nutrition

Process of providing/obtaining food necessary for health and growth

2

What is the role of vet nurses in patient nutrition?

Educate owners
Feed in practice
Identify diet issues

3

Define nutrients

Components in the diet that have specific functions in the body

4

What is the difference between essential and non-essential nutrients?

Essential- can't be synthesised by the body, need to be in diet
Non-essential- can be synthesised in body, dont need to be in diet

5

List the classifications of nutrients

Water
Protein
Carbohydrates
Fats
Vitamins
Minerals

6

What is the function of water in the body?

Electrolyte balance
Temperature regulation
Homeostasis of internal environment
Chemical reactions

7

What are the inputs and outputs of water?

Inputs- drinking, food, metabolic water
Outputs- urine, faeces, saliva, sweat, vomiting

8

What is normal total water loss from the body?

50ml/kg/24hr

9

What is the main energy source in the body?

Carbohydrates

10

How are carbohydrates stored in the body?

Fat
Glycogen in muscle and liver

11

What is the function of carbohydrates in the body?

Energy
Fibre source
Bodily functions

12

When do carbohydrates cause problems in some patients?

Some cant easily be digested causing diarrhoea or GI problems
Obesity

13

What are the different types of fibre?

Insoluble- cellulose in veg and cereal grains
Soluble- pectin, fruit, vegetables, beans, oats, lentils

14

What is the functions of fibre?

Aid GI system
Make faeces softer and bulkier to pass easier
Prevent constipation and diarrhoea
Decrease calorie density

15

What are problems associated with fibre?

Too much can cause high fecal output

16

What are the functions of proteins?

Growth
Repair
Energy
Metabolism
Nitrogen source
Hormone/enzyme production
Metabolism regulation

17

List the 10 essential amino acids

Arginine
Methionine
Histidine
Phenylalanine
Isoleucine
Threonine
Leucine
Tryptophan
Lysine
Valine

18

What is the additional essential amino acid required by cats and why is it essential for them?

Taurine
Is produced in conversion of methionine or cytosine but this process is too slow in cats

19

Why cant cats be vegetarian?

Taurine is found in animal protein

20

What can taurine deficiency in cats do?

Cause blindness and heart problems

21

Define biological value

Proportion of essential amino acids in protein and how easily available they are

22

What are sources of proteins?

Meat
Plants
Milk
Dairy

23

What happens to excess protein?

Broken down by liver and kidneys for excretion but can compromise their function

24

What are the signs of protein deficiency?

Weight loss
Poor growth
Dull coat
Muscle atrophy
Oedema

25

What are the functions of fats?

Carry fat soluble vitamins
Source of essential fatty acids
Energy
Form cell membranes
Improve coat condition
Control water loss
Insulation
Hormone synthesis

26

What is the most important type of dietary fats?

Triglycerides

27

What are sources of fat?

Animal fat
Vegetable oil
Oily fish
Red meat
Dairy

28

What are the essential fatty acids?

Linoleic acid- essential for all animals
Linolenic acid- synthesised from linoleic acid
Arachidonic acid- synthesised from linoleic acid

29

Which species cant synthesised arachidonic acid so need it in their diet?

Cats

30

What are symptoms of essential fatty acid deficiency?

Impaired reproductive function
Impaired wound healing
Dry coat and skin