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Flashcards in Icides Deck (11):
0

What is the best use of Diethyltoluamide (DEET)?

Insect repellent

1

What is the best use of Manet?

Fungicide

2

What is the best use of Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT)?

Insecticide

3

What is the best use of Paraquat?

Herbicide

4

Pesticides chemical classes?

1. Organophosphates (O-Ps) - parathion, chlorpyrifos
2. Carbamate
3. Organochlorine - DDT
4. Pyrethrum - pyrethins
5. Herbicides - 2,4-D, Paraquat, 2,4-D 2,4,5-T - dioxin

5

O-Ps pesticides

Malathion
Parathion
Chlorpyrifos
Diazinon

Vx nerve gas - methylphosphonothioate

Sarin - methylphosphonofluoriolate

6

O-Ps vs carbamate

O-Ps inhibit acetylcholinesterase irreversible. Atropine + 2-PAM. 2-PAM (pralidoxime) must give within 24-48 hs after exposure.

Carbamate -cholinesterase deactivated spontaneously, less BBB penetration, no chronic effects. 2-PAM is not necessary for carbamate poisoning.

7

DUMBELS

Diarrhea
Urination
Miosis
Bronchospasm, bradycardia
Emesis
Lacrimation
Salivation

8

Measure/test for O-Ps poisoning ?

RBC cholinesterase more specific
Plasma or pseudo cholinesterase more sensitive

9

Carbamate pesticides poisoning medication choice?

Atropine.

Carbamate pesticides do not form stable bonds with the cholinesterase enzyme like the organophosphates, and 2-PAM has no effect in carbamate poisoning as its action is specific to the phosphorylated enzyme.

10

Parathion poisoning, what medication to choose?

Both atropine and 2-PAM
- Atropine only competes with acetylcholine at muscarinic receptors, does not bind to nicotinic receptors and is ineffective in treating neuromuscular dysfunction.
- Pralidoxime (2-PAM) are cholinesterase deactivating agents that are effective in treating both muscarinic and nicotinic symptoms.
- Pralidoxime should not be administered without concurrent atropine to prevent worsening symptoms due to transient oxime-induced acetylcholinesterase inhibition.