Flashcards in Environmental Health Deck (50)
Agent that causes Chloracne ?
- Refers to both uptake of dissolved chemicals from water and uptake from ingested food and sediment.
Primary air pollutants?
- SO2 (sulfur dioxide)
- NO (Nitrogen oxides)
- CO (Carbon monoxide)
- Particulates (PM)
(NOx & SOx are from L.O.P, Co)
Stages of portable water tx?
1. Aeration - gas out
2.3.4 - decrease bacterial burden up to 90%
6. Disinfection - chlorination
Residual of chlorine for residential supplies > 0.2 mg /L
Recommendation on Fluoridation concentration?
A fluoride concentration of 1.0 ppm can reduce incidence of dental caries by ? %
Component of risk assessment
1. Hazard identification (HI)
2. Dose-response assessment (DR)
3. Exposure Assessment (EA)
4. Risk characterization (RC)
Biological oxygen demand?
A measure of organic content in water.
The greater the demand, the greater the load of organic content that can be broken down, reflecting a high bacterial load.
Treated sewage has a DOB of
Untreated freshwater has a BOD of
Domestic sewage has a BOD of
Industrial sewage has a BOD of
To monitor the safety of freshwater
E. Coli criteria
To monitor the safety of saltwater
Leading cause of unintentional poison death in US?
Secondary air pollutants
- Formed after subsequent chemical reactions
- eg. Peroxyacetyl nitrate
Greatest single contributor to urban air pollutions is
In terms of tons of material emitted annually, in Industry, Automobiles, Electric power generators, and Refuse disposal
Automobiles contributes the most. Overall, 60% of air pollution comes from transportation.
The major US source of sulfur oxide air pollution is Electric power generation
Electric power generation accounts for approximately 40% of SOx emissions in the US.
Three primary process responsible for air pollution are
2. Attrition (in the wearing or grinding down of materials)
- 12 mile layer that contains most of the air mass
- most of the pollution is also concentrated in the troposphere
- Accounts for the brown haze of photochemical smog
- it reacts with organic molecules to form oxidants such as peroxyacetyl nitrate
- it also penetrates deep into the lung where it hydrolyzes to form nitric acid
SOx caused corrosion of buildings and statues
SOx reacts in air with moisture to form sulfuric and sulfurous acids which are corrosive
Aldehyde is the most reactive of organic compounds of common air pollutants
The finctional group of aldehyde is the carbonyl group (C=O) which makes these highly reactive
primary contributor to the formation of smog are?
Olefins (also called alkene)
Factors affect the dispersion of smoke plumes from a stack
2. Height of the stack
3. Building nearby
Relative humidity does not affect the dispersion of the smoke plumes significantly.
The major source of sulfur dioxide pollution is from?
Coal fired electric power generation
- coal contains sulfur which, when burned, produced sulfur dioxide
The three terms used to describe plumes in air pollution are ?
Leads to a Greenhouse effect by causing the atmosphere to retain more of the heat from the sun.