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Flashcards in Environmental Health Deck (50)
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0

Agent that causes Chloracne ?

Dioxin

1

Bioaccumulation

- Refers to both uptake of dissolved chemicals from water and uptake from ingested food and sediment.

2

Primary air pollutants?

- SO2 (sulfur dioxide)
- NO (Nitrogen oxides)
- CO (Carbon monoxide)
- Lead
- Ozone
- Particulates (PM)
(NOx & SOx are from L.O.P, Co)

3

Stages of portable water tx?

1. Aeration - gas out
2. Coagulation
3. Flocculation
4. Sedimentation
2.3.4 - decrease bacterial burden up to 90%
5. Filtration
6. Disinfection - chlorination
Residual of chlorine for residential supplies > 0.2 mg /L

4

Recommendation on Fluoridation concentration?

0.7ppm

5

A fluoride concentration of 1.0 ppm can reduce incidence of dental caries by ? %

50-79%

6

Component of risk assessment

1. Hazard identification (HI)
2. Dose-response assessment (DR)
3. Exposure Assessment (EA)
4. Risk characterization (RC)

7

Biological oxygen demand?

A measure of organic content in water.
The greater the demand, the greater the load of organic content that can be broken down, reflecting a high bacterial load.

8

Treated sewage has a DOB of

10-20 mg/l

9

Untreated freshwater has a BOD of

25 mg/l

10

Domestic sewage has a BOD of

200-500 mg/l

11

Industrial sewage has a BOD of

>2000 mg/l

12

To monitor the safety of freshwater

Enterococcus or
E. Coli criteria

13

To monitor the safety of saltwater

Enterococcus criteria

14

Leading cause of unintentional poison death in US?

CO

15

Secondary air pollutants

- Formed after subsequent chemical reactions
- eg. Peroxyacetyl nitrate

16

Greatest single contributor to urban air pollutions is

Automobile.

17

In terms of tons of material emitted annually, in Industry, Automobiles, Electric power generators, and Refuse disposal

Automobiles contributes the most. Overall, 60% of air pollution comes from transportation.

18

The major US source of sulfur oxide air pollution is Electric power generation

Electric power generation accounts for approximately 40% of SOx emissions in the US.

19

Three primary process responsible for air pollution are

1. Vaporization
2. Attrition (in the wearing or grinding down of materials)
3. Combustion

"VAC"

20

Troposphere

- 12 mile layer that contains most of the air mass
- most of the pollution is also concentrated in the troposphere

21

Nitrogen dioxide

- Accounts for the brown haze of photochemical smog
- it reacts with organic molecules to form oxidants such as peroxyacetyl nitrate
- it also penetrates deep into the lung where it hydrolyzes to form nitric acid

22

SOx caused corrosion of buildings and statues

SOx reacts in air with moisture to form sulfuric and sulfurous acids which are corrosive

23

Aldehyde is the most reactive of organic compounds of common air pollutants

The finctional group of aldehyde is the carbonyl group (C=O) which makes these highly reactive

24

primary contributor to the formation of smog are?

Olefins (also called alkene)

25

Factors affect the dispersion of smoke plumes from a stack

1. Terrain
2. Height of the stack
3. Building nearby

Relative humidity does not affect the dispersion of the smoke plumes significantly.

26

The major source of sulfur dioxide pollution is from?

Coal fired electric power generation
- coal contains sulfur which, when burned, produced sulfur dioxide

27

The three terms used to describe plumes in air pollution are ?

1. Fanning
2. Looping
3. Coning

28

Carbon dioxide

Leads to a Greenhouse effect by causing the atmosphere to retain more of the heat from the sun.

29

Major contributor to carbon monoxide pollution is ?

- Transportation, which results in 69% of CO pollution
- Industrial processes are second